720-Q089 Module Answers
Categories of commercial media production
Television stations and networks
Radio stations and networks
Recording artists and record labels
Book publishers, magazines and newspapers
The media is an evolving ecosystem because of the technologyinnovation, market dynamics as well policy and regulation interplay.Media is constantly changing in line with changes in its environment,in the similar manner that ecology happens. Upcoming firms become thenew species, resources are the nutrients, current firms have to alterto meet emerging demands that resonates to adaptation and some firmsbecoming irrelevant, which is extinction.
Factors interacting to influence media evolution are the interplayof
Policy and regulation
Waves of society are, Agriculture – the agricultural society wascharacterized by hunting and gathering, as civilization progressedthe society adopted domestication of animals and plants. During theperiod, writing was invented and primary media like books, and handwritten letters were used. Industrial revolution – the industrialsociety is characterized by print as the main communication medium,science, political and social revolutions and electrical media.Information society – computer became the main communicationmedium.
Communication refers to the exchange of ideas. The fourcommunication types are
In the S-M-C-R communication model, the source intends tocommunicate via sending a message. The source has to encode themessage to a form, which is easy to communicate. The message isconveyed via a channel to the receiver, who decodes the message. Anyobstacle in the communication model is called noise. The receiversends feedback to the sender.
In digital media, media information is transmitted via sound waves,which depends on frequency and amplitude. Contrary, digital mediatransforms the analog waves to binary digits.
The media today is digital, converging, social, interactive,asynchronous, narrowcast and multimedia.
Communication entails correspondence of meaning because there oughtto be a sender and receiver for communication to happen. The sendercommunicates the idea while the receiver interprets meaning andresponds by giving feedback.
Face-to-face communication is richer compared to mediatedcommunication due to the non-verbal cues employed. They include toneof voice, facial expressions and body language, which enhanceinterpretation of what is said.
Culture refers to socially constructed behaviors, which are hard tochange. They are obtained from parents, siblings, environment amongother influencers. Culture dictates ones view of the world.Communication is the symbolic procedure where reality becomesproduced, ensured, altered and repaired. The relationship amidculture and communication thus derives from the use of communicationin exchanging ideas that shape our culture.
Dominant/mainstream culture is overriding and is borrowed from thesociety becoming dictated in individual’s beliefs, as well asconducts. It is dominant as it determines how people communicate.Subcultures derive from the main cultures and mainly describe whatpeople do, or who they are, for instance, southerners, Protestantsamong others.
The media is a cultural forum because it creates an opportunity andplatform for sharing observations on society. It is through the mediathat people are able to learn new ideas, through observing andreacting to what they see.
Gutenberg’s printing press is important as it enhanced literacyand education value, resulting in the spread of democracy, emergenceof the middle class and industrial revolution.
Literacy is the capability of employing written symbols in readingand writing. Current media-literacy skills are:
Willingness to concentrate
Comprehension and regard for media messages authority
Capability to differentiate emotional from reasoned responses
Advancement of increased media content expectations
Knowledge of grammar
Capability to think decisively about media messages and sources
Livingstone’s components of media literacy are capability toaccess, analyze, evaluate and create media messages in differentforms.
Media literacy education is skill-based as it entails learningtechniques, which will be important in sending and receiving mediamessages. It involves learning skills that make it probable toanalyze the authenticity of information.
Literacy is engagement with symbolic texts through the analysis ofmedia messages. Upon receiving a message, the reader or viewerengages with the content, prior to responding. This means that oneought to be able to understand what is being communicated to engage.
The relationship between media literacy and cultural literacyderives from the fact that media literacy is managed through socialstructures. Culture is the social arrangements of society, whichinfluence media content, like education, commercial entities,government and the media.
An individual has to understand what they are communicating to takepart in social conversations. Understanding is also important inenhancing sharing and receiving of media content thus, therelationship amid literacy and social participation.
The reasons for teaching production are to improve understanding ofthe medium, create jobs and encourage civic participation.
Media literacy is technology-oriented because technology is the mainform of creating, communicating and distributing media content.
Media literacy new skills are:
Research is the methodical compilation of information to respond toquestions. Illustrations include personal decision on what vehicle topurchase, how to confirm a statement, television ratings to validatethe age of individuals viewing a specific program and media effects.
Theory implies a group of statements, which identify major ideasconcerning a phenomenon and their relation. Hypotheses are aninformed prediction on what will take place under particularconditions. Observation is what is seen. Paradigm shift is a changein pattern.
The goals of science are to enhance understanding – the ability toexplain why things happen in a specific manner, prediction –ability to inform what will happen and control – being capable ofinfluencing results through manipulation of causal aspects.
Content analysis is an objective, systematic and quantitativeresearch technique, which counts illustrations. The concepts arerandom sample collection, coding scheme and unit of analysis.Advantages of content analysis are that others are capable ofanalyzing the similar data and create the same conclusions, and themethod has rules that guarantee inter-coder dependability. Thedisadvantage is the inability to validate effects.
Surveys assess the associations amid variables. Key concepts includerandom and representative sample and survey instrument. Benefitsinclude addressing an array of questions, ability to gatherinformation from numerous individuals, possibility of being costeffective, and when properly executed the results can be estimated tolarger population. Demerits involve the inability of participants toremember things correctly, participants assuming purpose, inabilityto determine causality and the challenge of response rate.
Types of surveys are cross-sectional and longitudinal – which canevaluate trends over a given period and include trend study, cohortand panel.