According to an intelligent report given by the Customs and Border

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Accordingto an intelligent report given by the Customs and Border ProtectionAgency of America, there are hundreds of immigrants originating fromall over the world that are illegally crossing the frontier. Thereport revealed that majority are caught while others presentthemselves to the Border Patrol police. Immigrants from more than 70different nations were caught illegally crossing the border from July2010 through July 2014. Perimeter security has been an ongoing debatein the United States1.Human smuggling has also been a disturbing issue and despite theintroduction of laws regulating the illegal activity, the runnersstill find new tactics of continuing with the activity. The aim ofthis paper is to analyze the issue of illegal cross frontier activityand the responsibility of Customs and Border Protection Agency. Italso highlights the challenges faced by these agencies in theirattempt to safeguard the U.S borders. In addition, the paper outlinesnumerous innovative policy measures that will help regulate theillegal activity. Different suggestions recommend that security atthe border should be increased. Most people argue that the militaryshould be deployed all over the borders of the U.S so as to enforcestrict guidelines at frontier crossings1.

TheCustoms and Border Protection is an agency of the U.S Department ofHomeland and Security that helps manage the integrity and security atborders. The core value demonstrated is vigilance. It seeks to ensuresafety of all the citizens in America. The CBP ensures that itdetects and controls threats that may pose danger to the Americans.It enjoys a combined work effort with other authorities such asImmigration, Health Inspection and Naturalization among others inorder to maintain national security1.CBP is in the fore-front and

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leadsother state agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission,Food and Drug Administration and the Consumer Product SafetyCommission among others. The Customs and Border Protection Agency ispressed due to the increase in volumes of trade but it is trying toensure that it carries out its mission. Further, it helps facilitateand control international trade as well as enforcing regulations.

Therehas been numerous strategies established and implement to protect theborder in the past. The game plans were used to regulate the activityin the most affected areas with less vigilance on other geographicareas1.The increase in reported cases of crime rates, human trafficking,apprehension rates and terrorism requires America to redesign theirsystems in order to address the issues of national security2.The most affected areas identified include the Southwest and ArizonaSonora borders. The Arizona Sonora Border is recognized worldwide asthe busiest international border and majority of the illegalactivities take place here. The towns and communities along theborder are densely populated making it easy for people to sneak in toand out of the country. The government of the United Statesestablished the Department for Homeland Security (DHS) that preventedterrorism attacks and the possibilities of being threatened to suchattacks2.The Customs and Border Protection, Immigration and CustomsEnforcement and the American Guard among others were governed by theDHS. The primary

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objectiveof coming together of these departments was to fight against illegalperimeter crossing as a team.

AStrategy for the Future

Thebiggest challenge faced by the Customs and Border Protection Agencyis lack of appropriate measures to control the illegal cross borderactivities. There have been numerous cases reported of deadimmigrants in the desert and this calls for the review of securityplan2.The government is trying to provide the required resources,contrarily the CBP seems to have a flawed system. According to areport released by the International Terrorism Entities Institute,there are numerous factors that lead to an increasing demand inillegal cross border activities.

First,the strategies developed emphasis on border protection at thestrategic areas. This has made the immigrants to shift to other areaswhere security is not strict. For instance, San Diego was one of theplaces where foreigners used to enter America through but theincreased number of security officers in the area brought the crimerates down. There was less border protection at Tucson area leadingto an increased crime rate. The other factor is because Mexico Cityis recording an increased number of Islamic migrants2.There is fear because terrorists can now use the immigrants coming toMexico City to organize crimes. It is therefore upon the policymakers to develop strategies that will tighten the border securitysystems at all the areas along the border.

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TheASB Model

Securityspecialists in the United States say that the security systems at theborders should be revised so that the resources provided by thegovernment can be utilized effectively to bring about change. Theyrecommended the use of Arizona Sonora Model that would help curbthese issues. The model would be of help in addressing issues relatedto cross-border activities in Arizona, Sonora and Tucson areas3.One of the features of ASB that makes it an ideal model is that ithas the ability to forecast what will happen along the border. Themodel is fed with certain information and the CBP employs certainresources to come up with approximate figures. The ASB model hasproved a success in assisting the decision makers to develop plansthat address the issues of illegal crossing the boundary in asystematic way. It calculates the rates mathematically and givessolutions that are helpful in reducing cases related to peripheryvulnerabilities if used appropriately.

TheMexico Border Plan

TheMexican Secretariat of Urban Development and Ecology joined with theEnvironmental Protection Agency to develop a plan that would helppreserve the boundary areas. They demonstrated that the plan wouldhelp improve the relationship between Mexico and America. The reportargued that the environment and economic growth are dependent on eachother in that the economy cannot grow without environmentalprotection3.The primary objective of the plan is preserving the eco-system andpromotes public health along the border. Further, the plan would beimplemented in stages.

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Thefirst stage would last for 3 years effective from 1992. It was aimedat strengthening the policies and laws. This goal would be attainedby increasing the number of inspectors and training programs. Theother goal was to reduce pollution. This will be achieved byimproving wastewater treatment systems4.The plan requires factories to treat waste water before releasing itto the environment. It helps prevent land, water and atmospherepollution. There is also a need to understand the border byestablishing waste disposal sites and formulating regulations thatwill ensure proper use and control of chemical along the border. Theapproximated cost of phase one would be $460 million U.S dollars ofwhich the two organizations decided to invest more than $300milliondollars that would help preserve the environment along the border.

TheMilitary`s Role in Border Security

Inthe past, the Customs and Border protection Agency in the UnitedStates primarily focused on establishing laws and policies thathelped regulate trade and cross border activities. They also ensuredthat cargo and vehicles crossing the border are checked. Recently,more complex issues have arisen that poses danger to the citizens ofAmerica more than the immigrants because most of them come to lookfor economic opportunities. There were more cases of human and drugtrafficking, crimes and terrorism. They threatened the people of theUnited States and there was a need to strengthen the borders so as toenhance the national security4.Issues that threaten the welfare of citizens and the community arematters of the national defense and not law enforcers.

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TheUnited States has differentiated the duties and responsibilities ofthe military and police. The police have the duty to protect thepeople from domestic and internal threats. On the other hand, themilitary keeps the nation safe from any external danger. Thegovernment of the United States finds it necessary to deploy themilitary at the borders so that they can cooperate with the borderpatrol to regulate the emerging threats4.

TheMilitary Support

Inthe year 2006, the government of the U.S deployed over ten thousandofficers to protect the border. The number grew to eighteen thousandofficers in 2008. In the subsequent years, the number grew by over100%. The border agents were helped by the National Guards fromdifferent countries to strengthen security. Some of the duties of theNational Guards were to provide administrative assistance,intelligence assistance, training, facilitating communication andtransportation among others4.However, despite the assistance, neither the National Guards nor themilitary focused in direct law enforcement. The responsibility ofenforcing law was carried out by the Border agents. The citizens ofAmerica do not want a mixture in the roles between the police andmilitary. They argue that the military should at no given time bepolicemen and vice versa. Military men are dedicated and most peoplerecognize their contribution because they act as servants of thenation.

ActiveDuty Forces

Itis argued that the deployment of the armed forces means that theirrole will be limited and they will be small in numbers at theborders4.For instance, the American Marine Corps Chemical-Biological IncidentResponse Force has the responsibility of addressing issues related

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tonuclear, chemical and biological explosives in order to keep thecountry save. In case of a threat related to chemicals and explosivesa team of experts is required to handle the manpower. The military isdeployed in the critical areas in order to detect any threats as wellas preventing them. The JTF-N is a team of specialized engineers thathas been deployed to monitor the missions and provide support. Inaddition, the taskforce cooperates with police officers and providesintelligence information with the state and other federal agencies.The U.S military incorporates the other forces form different nationsand has helped accomplish complex missions5.It assists solve conflicts and war inside and out of America.

TheNational Guard

TheNational Guard has a good relationship with the authorities andstate. It makes it to be in a better position to handle issuesrelated to perimeter security. The Arizona National Guard isconsidered the best guard and it performs better than the military.They appear to be best because of their close relationship with thestate and also respond to issues together. Most people recommend theNational Guard to be deployed and handle issues of illegal crossborder activities and other threats that interfere with the welfareof citizens5.The government has set funds to finance the deployment of NationalGuards. All the expenses incurred remain under control of the state

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ATour to Mexico Border

TheSecretary of the Department of Homeland Security Janet Napolitanovisited Mexico and contributed more than $21 million dollars thatwould be used to improve the security at the borders. The GeneralServices Administration also agreed to contribute over $ 400 milliondollars that would help in infrastructure development at theSouthwest border and Texas among others areas. The secretary saidthat the Homeland department will work together to strengthensecurity as well as boosting the economic growth6.The primary objective is to improve the overall security of thenation and hence they use advanced technology and provide adequateresources so as to achieve the security mission. Janet Napolitanohighlighted the achievements of the Homeland Security in regulatingillegal cross border activities and the strategies to adopt in orderto prevent such occurrences in the future. One of the strategies isadopting an advanced technology and sending more security personnelat the borders leading to a strict vigilance at the U.S borders. Suchmeasures will help improve the relationship between America andMexico as well as keeping them safer6.

Accordingto a report released by the Secretary of Homeland Security, theImmigration and Customs Enforcement in collaboration with the Customsand Border Protection, there were over 800 illegal firearms seized atthe border. In addition, more than $50 million dollars and over 100rounds of ammunitions were recovered at the Southwest borderillegally in the year 2009. These reported issues forced thesecretary to allocate further $ 400 million for the infrastructuredevelopment at the border6.There was an order to remove the illegal immigrants in the United

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Statesand the Immigration and Customs Enforcement were able to remove morethan 350,000 illegal immigrants. Regulating the illegal cross borderactivities remains a priority to the United States securitydepartment. It is important to tighten security at the borders sothat cases of crimes, human and drug trafficking among others canreduce. It is one of the best ways to boost economic growth becauseillegal trade is terminated and legal trade encouraged among states6.

Oneof the proposed steps that will ensure that illegal cross borderactivities are discouraged and legal trade promoted is adoptingdifferent regulatory measures at these borders. The Northern andSouthern borders differ in terms of climate and topography amongothers. The techniques used should not discourage trade. Thesimilarity between these borders is that there are illegal activitiesthat enter the country through these areas6.No single border should be spared in terms of security. The rightmeasures should be used at these margins so that the overall securityis maintained. The other suggestion is dealing with matters at hand.The issues of drug and human trafficking occurring at the northernand southern borders should be dealt with head on. Security personneland technology should be initiated and the criminals apprehended.

TheSecretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano demonstrates some ofthe missions of her department. She says that one of the reasons forthe establishment of the DHS is to address issues related toterrorism. The ministry gathers intelligence information andcommunicates to the government to take appropriate steps. The othermission is encouraging international relationships by signing dealsthat will facilitate sharing of technology designed to addressterrorism problems6.

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Inher tour to Mexico City, the secretary signed numerous agreements indifferent countries. The third mission is the focus on mission. Thedepartment ensures that it does not deviate from the missionspecific. For instance, if the identified problem is the protectionof land, the DHS ensures that all its operations are directed towardsaddressing the issue.

Duringthe tour, the Secretary signed numerous agreements and one of thempromoted bilateral cooperation with customs at the border. The accordis aimed at achieving numerous objectives. First, it will helpadminister and fasten the cooperation at the U.S borders7.For instance, there was an improved liaison between Mexico and U.S inthe inspection of cargo and vehicles entering U.S. Sharing ofinformation was also improved whereby any reported case of theft wascirculated across the border and it was easy to recover stolen goodsand property.

Theother goal was to increase training institutions for custom officersso as to have adequate number of trained officers at the borders. Thesecretary promised to share the systems used in the U.S with Mexicoso as to enhance uniformity of security systems. Trade was also apriority in the agreements. Janet Napolitano signed consensus thatwould help increase trade between America, Mexico and other nations7.There were compliance requirements established and one of them washaving a single entry form into and out of U.S. This helped inboosting trade because most of the illegal businesses seized.

Conclusion

TheUnited States border protection is a disturbing issue in the minds ofAmericans. There have been thousands of illegal immigrants who maketheir way in to U.S without being noticed. The frequent questionsasked is how do they pass the borders whereas there are customs

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officersdeployed to regulate such incidents? Different agencies merged toform the Customs and Border Protection. They included the INSdivision, Border Patrol Department and the United States Inspectiondivision among others. The CBP ensures that it detects and controlsthreats that may pose danger to the Americans along the borders. Mostpeople accuse the CBP agency for not doing enough to protect theborders7.The increase in issues such as drug and human trafficking as well asterrorism is a challenging task that requires redesigning of theplans that were traditionally employed. The number of trainedsecurity guards at the borders should be increased. Technology isalso advancing and this is an important tool that could help regulateillegal cross border activities.

Oneof the recommended strategies is the use of Arizona Sonora Model. Themodel would be of help in addressing issues related to cross-borderactivities in Arizona, Sonora and Tucson areas7.Security should be deployed in all the areas equally becauseimmigrants tend to shift from areas with tight security measures tothe less protect areas. In addition, the Mexican Secretariat of UrbanDevelopment and Ecology joined with the Environmental ProtectionAgency to develop a plan that would help preserve the border areas.The plan was aimed at preserving the eco-system and promoting publichealth along the border. The first phase would help strengthen thepolicies and laws governing the borders. It would be would beachieved by increasing the number of inspectors and training them7.The other objective was to reduce pollution. It would be achieved byimproving wastewater treatment systems. They would assist inconserving the environment along the borders.

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NationalCouncil of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (U.S.).Evaluationof the NCASI ASB Model Accuracy for Projecting Upgraded ProcessPerformance.New York, N.Y.: National Council of the Paper Industry for Air andStream Improvement, 2011.

Ordonez,Karl. Securingthe United States-Mexico border: An on-going dilemma.Homeland Security Affairs, 2009.http://search.proquest.com/docview/1268732794?accountid=8289

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Topof Form

UnitedStates. InternationalTrade: U.S. Customs and Border Protection Faces Challenges in Addressing Illegal Textile Transshipment: Report to CongressionalCommittees. Washington, D.C.: GAO, 2014.

1 Ordonez, Karl. Securing the United States-Mexico border: An on-going dilemma. Homeland Security Affairs, 2009. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1268732794?accountid=8289

21 Ordonez, Karl. Securing the United States-Mexico border: An on-going dilemma. Homeland Security Affairs, 2009. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1268732794?accountid=8289

32 United States. International Trade: U.S. Customs and Border Protection Faces Challenges in Addressing Illegal Transshipment: Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, D.C.: GAO, 2014.

42 United States. International Trade: U.S. Customs and Border Protection Faces Challenges in Addressing Illegal Transshipment: Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, D.C.: GAO, 2014.

53 National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (U.S.). Evaluation of the NCASI ASB Model Accuracy for Projecting Upgraded Process Performance. New York, N.Y.: National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, 2011.

64 Pickering, Sharon, and Leanne Weber. Borders, Mobility and Technologies of Control. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=30363

74 Pickering, Sharon, and Leanne Weber. Borders, Mobility and Technologies of Control. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=30363

85 United States Department of Homeland Security Handbook. Washington, DC: International Business Publications USA, 2010.

96 Schied, Eugene. U. S. Customs and Border Protection: Performance and Accountability. DIANE Publishing, 2010

106 Schied, Eugene. U. S. Customs and Border Protection: Performance and Accountability. DIANE Publishing, 2010

117 Askew, Marc. Conspiracy, Politics, and a Disorderly Border: The Struggle to Comprehend Insurgency in Thailand`s Deep South. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington, 2012.

127 Askew, Marc. Conspiracy, Politics, and a Disorderly Border: The Struggle to Comprehend Insurgency in Thailand`s Deep South. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington, 2012.

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