Annotated bibliography Unit
Belghiti-Mahut,S., Bergmann, N., Gartner, M., Hearn, J., Hotler, O., ……WojnickaK. (2012).
TheRole of Men in Gender Equality – European strategies & insights.Prepared for European Commission, DG Justice – Unit D2 Genderequality. Contract ref. no. VC/2010/0592
Thearticle explores the influence of social, economic, political andcultural factors on the participation of men in promoting andengaging gender equality issues in European countries. The articleexplores and compares the cost and benefits of gender balance indifferent countries but notes that no single European country hasachieved the desired gender balance level. The article providesbetter detailed in-depth country-specific data than that provided byMoss (2002). Such detailed data will enable the current study toexplore men and their changing gender identities under recent genderequality policies in European countries. It will pinpoint costs andbenefits of gender equality or inequality. As per the study findings,gender equality benefits both genders. For men, they benefit morefrom gender equality than inequality hence they need gender equalityas much as it needs them. The country specific data helps in clearlyvalidating the claimed benefits of gender equality to men bycomparing the different countries which makes the study very strong.
Connell,R. (2005). Change among the gatekeepers: men, masculinities, andgender equality in
theglobal arena. Signs:Journal of women in and culture and society30(3): 1801-1824.
Thepaper explores on the overall some the strategies that can beimplemented by men to achieve gender equality. The paper reveals thatmen are not only responsible for make institutional changes tofacilitate gender equality but they also need to change on personallevel in terms attitudes and educating themselves more. The papermakes it clear that there is no blanket solution to making men morereceptive and supportive of gender equality but only through acustomized approach. This differs greatly to the institutionalchanges suggested by Davis, Luchters and Holmes (2012) who view men’sinvolvement in family care through paternal leaves as a highlight ofgender equality. The paper will thus be used to portray that genderequality has a complex structure that involves cultural, social andpersonal considerations. The study thus suggests that the diversityof masculinity calls for a diverse approaches to engaging men ingender equality matters. Though this sounds very convincing, thestudy as a literature provides no concrete data or examples toexplain its case.
Davis,J., Luchters, S. & Holmes, W. (2012) Men and maternal and newbornhealth: benefits,
harms,challenges and potential strategies for engaging men, Compass:Women`s and Children`s Health Knowledge Hub.Melbourne, Australia.
Thepaper is a critical of 78 studies on strategies to achieve genderequality. It examines men’s engagement in care provision at thefamily level and involvement in women and newborns health. Itachieves this by examining potential benefits, harms, challenges andstrategies that can be applied in low income families. This is aninteresting approach as it assesses the suitability of Farré (2012)views on men’s involvement in the family. The paper is alsodifferent from other sources in that it is realistic as itacknowledges that any change has both benefits and detriments and mayface resistance. It will thus allow the current study to appraisesome of the popular strategies of engaging men in gender equality.The study’s findings also explain the popularity of this approachby indicating that it is beneficial to involve men in maternal andchild health and the methods can be simple, relatively inexpensiveand applicable in different settings. The high number of studiesreviewed strongly supports these findings and increase this study’sreliability.
Eastin,J., & Prakash, A. (2013). Economic Development And GenderEquality: Is there a gender Kuznets curve? WorldPolitics,65(01),156-186. Cambridge University Press.
Thestudy demonstrates that the effects of economic development on genderequality are contingent on the particular developmental phase of thatcountry. It is based on Kuznetsthesis of a curvilinear relationship between economic growth andincome inequality. Thisview reinforces the claim by Moss (2002) Belghiti-Mahut et al (2012)that gender equality is more of a country specific issue than aglobal issue. This means that it cannot be affected by just debatesbut rather by governments enacting necessary policies. The studyreinforces the perspective of the current study that is based on theclaim that gender equality is a beneficiary of economic developmentwhich places men, who own majority of economic resources globally atthe centre stage. However, the study posits that is only possible ifeconomic development is done in three phases. Firstincreasing equality, then decreasing or decelerating equality, andfinally increasing again (S-shape) to rhyme with economic growth andfactor in cultural influences. The study provides real data and usessimple examples to drive the point home. However, the study employscomplex theoretical concepts.
Farré,L. (2012). Theroleof men for gender equality.New York: Barons Press.
Thebook considers the micro-level (family) as the most effectiveapproach to addressing gender equality issues at the macro-level(national). The author indicates that it is only by men adaptinggender equality in their families they can be able to enact policiesat the national level that promote gender equality. This approach issimilar to the one taken by Neyer et al (2013) who all view familiesas the best training grounds for men to enforce gender equalityglobally. However, it differs with Moss (2002) and others whoconsider government social policies as more effective. Therefore, thearticle will be used to reinforce the argument that men’sengagement in household chores and caring for children as promotinggender equality. The books main argument is that men, who comprisemajority of policymakers, will be better placed to develop effectivegender equality policies that target men as opposed to women giventhe policies targeting women have not achieved much. These issues arepresented in a reader friendly manner targeting all audiences and notmen only which makes the book a valuable to the study.
Flood,M. (2011). Involving men in efforts to end violence against women.Menand
Thearticle examines a wide range of efforts to engage men and boys ingender equality programs to end violence against women. The papertargeted men who have received targeted education and activists. Thisstudy seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of targeted educationprograms on men on gender equality unlike other studies such asUNESCO (2009) that do not reveal background of men engaged in genderequality efforts or those resisting change. The study revealed thatthe more the men received more academic qualifications the betterthey were at gender equality and ready to promote it. Additionally,those who received targeted information through adverts or workshopswere equally supportive of gender equality. The papers main findingis that education level and targeted education in men were criticalin achieving gender equality. This will assist the current study insupporting claims that education level affects men receptiveness togender equality. The paper is written flawlessly and cites manyarticles as a literature review which increases credibility.
Moss,N. E. (2002). Gender Equity And Socioeconomic Inequality: a frameworkfor the patterning of women`s health. SocialScience & Medicine,54(5),649-661. Elsevier.
Thispaper explores exploresthe interrelationship of gender equity and socioeconomic inequalityand how they affect women’s health at the macro- (country) andmicro- (household and individual) levels. To achieve this, the paperconsiders country-specific history geopolitically, policies,geography, legal rights, institutions and structures that influencegender inequality. This is contrasted against culture, norms,socio-demographic factors, sanctions at country level and its effecton women’s reproductive roles at home and their occupation. Thedifferent relationships between these different factors are exploredand their effect on women’s health in terms of psychologicalstresses, health services and health outcomes assessed. This area isnot explored by none of the other sources. Thepaper captures effects of country specific polities and socialstructures and their influence on gender equality on the healthfront. The study reveals that these factors national level policiesinfluence women’s health but it is the family level factors thatare most influential. Although the article claims to assess countryspecific data, very little data is offered in the paper. The study,being secondary in nature relied on past studies whose data andfindings could not be verified.
Neyer,G., Lappegård, T., & Vignoli, D. (2013). Gender Equality andFertility: Which equality matters? EuropeanJournal of Population,29(3),245-272. Springer….
Thepaper discusses the issue of fertility among european men. Itspefcaily targets men’s willingness to partner fully in fertilityissues in the family such as taking patenrity leave and even sharingfertility relacted chores to create a gender equality environment inthe family. This article takes a different approach to seeking men’sinvovlement in gender equality different from how Moss(2002) and Belghiti-Mahut et al (2012) and other authors who look atthe issue from a policy and institutional framework as opposed to apersonalized family approach used here. As a resource, the paper willbe used to show that gender equality can be owned by men at thefamily level by sharing fertility matters such as childcare. Thepaper shows that women are more considerate of finances andavailability of childcare before committing to child bearing morethan men. However, the authors adapt an over-generalized view offamily dynamics which is not practical in such studies which weakensthe methodology used.
Peacock,D. & Levack (2004). The men as partners program in South Africa:reaching men to
endgender-based violence and promote sexual and reproductive health.InternationalJournal of Men’s Health3(3): 173-188.
Thearticle reports on a gender equality program targeting South Africanmen. The 5-day program titled Men as Partners (MAP) sought tochallenge men to change behaviours and attitudes that compromisetheir health, that of their women and children as well as toencourage men to actively fight gender violence and HIV/AIDS. This adifferent approach from the ones employed by other resources used inthis study. The article thus plays a critical role to prove thatpolicies that promote economic/social/political empowerment of womenalone will not achieve much in some cases as the complexity ofcontextual factors call for a closer approach. The program resultsrevealed after a 3 month follow up showed increased awareness infamily finances but failed to assess changes in condom use and genderviolence which practically makes the study incomplete despite thevery convincing approach to the gender equality problem.
UNESCO(2009) Role of Men and Boys in Promoting Gender Equality. UNESCOadvocacy
Thepolicy by UNESCO provides a framework fordeveloping strategies, implementing programs, and evaluating progressin gender equality efforts that engage men in all spheres of life.The study is based on the notion that gender equality pertains toensuring that rights, responsibilities and opportunities of differentpeople do not depend on their gender. While other studies (e.g.Eastin& Prakash 2013)are engaged on how to implement gender equality, this studyreinforces what gender equality is and uses the definition toidentify suitable interventional policies. It is these interventionalpolicies on different areas such as change in educational policiesthat make this paper invaluable to the current study. One corefinding of this study is that men will engage in gender equalitymatters actively only if they understand better the benefits ofgender equality to them and not just because it is morally right todo so. The paper is succinct and suggests practical examples toengage men in gender equality without delving so much into theory.