QuantitativeMethod: The effects of Crossed Leg on Blood Pressure Measurement

Protectionof Human Rights

Afterthe identification of the subjects, the researcher sought theirverbal consent prior to the commencement of the study. The nature ofthe research was also explained thoroughly to all participants. Itwas important considering the kind of research being carried out.Certainly, an individual’s health condition is a private issue thatshould be kept confidential. This action by the researcher ensuredvoluntary participation for all, while protecting their human rights(Polit&amp Beck, 2011).


Thecurrent research article is a quasi-experimental design. The reasonis that the researcher selected a sample of 100 subjects and equallydivided it into two in order to have a comparison group. It wasfollowed by the experiment whereby a variable (blood pressure) wascompared between the two groups in different leg positions. Thecurrent study used subjects selected from different outpatientclinics located in the Midwestern Veterans’ medical center. Theparticipants were male hypertensive patients aged between 31 and 81years. They were under antihypertensive drugs at the time of thestudy. The sample size was 100 participants, divided into two groupsof 50 subjects each. Patients with a history of various diseases orcomplications did not take part in the study. They includedperipheral vascular illness, amputation or surgery of lowerextremity. Monitoring and recording of blood pressure was done byclinic nurses. A written procedure was followed to ensure theapplication of a similar technique. The use of IVAC Vital.Check VitalSigns Measurement System to measure blood pressures eliminatedobserver bias (Foster-Fitzpatric et al., 1999). The system wasstandardized in line with the IVAC Corporation Service Manual andverified for precision before commencing the research.

Populationand Sample

Thestudy focused on male patients suffering from hypertension. Thesubjects were under medication during the time of study. The researchsample comprised of 100 participants. It was chosen randomly fromdifferent outpatient clinics in a veterans’ hospital. However, only84 participants were eligible for the study, as the remaining 16subjects did not take their antihypertensive drugs as required(Foster-Fitzpatricket al., 1999).

DataCollection and Measurement

Datawas collected using Vital Signs Measurement System. It is a bloodpressure monitor employed to measure and record pressures of thedifferent participants. The monitor was efficient as it ensuredcredibility of information. The obtained data was analyzed usingstatistical technique (ANOVA) (Foster-Fitzpatricket al., 1999).The independent variable was leg position while the dependentvariable was blood pressure.


Thefirst step included the identification of potential participants. Theresearcher then sought verbal approval from the subjects. After doingthis, the participants were put in a setting with a room temperatureof 73oF(Foster-Fitzpatricket al., 1999).Any environmental stress such as noise was eradicated. After theremoval of constricting clothing, the participants were asked to seatand relax for at least five minutes. The participants were asked toput their feet flat on the ground and desist from any movement orcommunication. After placing the subject’s arm on the table,leveling the heart and with the palm facing up, the procedure began.Measurement and recording of blood pressure was done, and repeatedafter three minutes with the legs crossed. The procedure was done andrepeated for both groups and the results compared.


Foster-Fitzpatrick,L., Ortiz, A., Sibilago, H., Marcantonio, R. &amp Braun, L.T.(1999). The Effects of Crossed Leg on Blood Pressure Measurement.NursRes.48(2):105-108.

Polit,D. F. &amp Beck, C. T. (2011). Nursingresearch: Generating and assessing evidence(9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.

QualitativeMethod: The Experience of Black Fathers Concerning Support for TheirWives/Partners during LaborProtectionof Participants’ Rights

Accordingto studies, protecting the rights of participants is vital whileconducting any research (Polit&amp Beck, 2011). Researchersshould ensure that prior to the commencement of any research workappropriate measures are taken to safeguard such rights. It is inline with ethical standards which should be followed by researchers.In the current study, the researcher first sought informed consent ofthe ten subjects used in the study. It ascertained their need toparticipate willingly and voluntarily. He also explained the natureof the research, which gave the participants a broader understanding.Anonymity was also guaranteed by the researcher.

ResearchDesign and Research Tradition

Theresearch employed an exploratory, qualitative and descriptive designrelated to clinical nursing. A phenomenological technique wasemployed to gather information relevant to the research questions.Fathers who offered support to their partners or wives during labour,as well as those who never provided any support were interviewed. Thenature of the research was contextual. The reason is that thephenomenon was investigated in line with its direct setting (Sengane,2009). Thestudy context was labour wards of different provincial and privatehospices located in the Gauteng area.

Sampleand Setting

Apurposive sample of ten black fathers was used in the current study.The sample was chosen from a population of black fathers who hadtheir partners admitted at different hospitals situated in Gauteng(Sengane,2009).The subjects were divided into groups of five each. The measure usedto compile the purposive sampled was as follows. The first groupcomprised of fathers who were there during labour. They were chosenfrom a private hospital. Group two comprised of fathers not presentduring labour. They were chosen from a provincial hospital. Variousreasons resulted in the selection of provincial and privatehospitals. On one hand, the majority of private settings allowedfathers to accompany their partners during labour. In fact, thenursing personnel took the pleasure of doing the invitations. Thepresence of fathers was deemed to comfort and calm the mothers. Onthe other hand, the researcher recognized that provincial hospitalshad a stringent policy. Fathers were not allowed to go to the labourwards before seeking permission from the management.


Datawas collected using interviews. The researcher used a tape recorderfor recording the information obtained. Interviews were conducted onthe second day of post-partum stage. This was after appropriatearrangements were made with the participants. The researcher usedunstructured interviews for both groups.


Afterobtaining informed approval from the participants, the researcherproceeded with the study through the employment of unstructuredinterviews. The participants, who were divided into two groups offive each, were selected from both provincial and private hospitalsin Gauteng. The researcher clarified the nature of research to therespondents, and anonymity was also guaranteed. A qualified nursingcoder, together with the researcher was responsible for analyzingdata using Kerlinger’s method of content analysis (Sengane,2009).

Enhancementof Trustworthiness

Trustworthinesswas enhanced through the application of Lincoln and Guba model(Sengane,2009). Variousstrategies were implemented to improve credibility. They included thefollowing:

  • Member checking: In this, the researcher performed follow-up interviews with two respondents. The importance was to validate the already gathered information.

  • Peer examination: It involved the supervision of the research by a professional. The professional had experience in research methods and was also doctorally qualified. Data analysis was also done by an experienced independent coder.


Polit,D. F. &amp Beck, C. T. (2011). Resourcemanual for nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence fornursing practice(9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Sengane, M. L. (2009). The experience of black fathers concerning support fortheir wives/partners during labour. Curationis,32(1):67-73.

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