Assignment 2 Research Proposal


Assignment2: Research Proposal





January26, 2015

Assignment2: Research Proposal

Topic:Should Transport security (TSA) be changed?

Theformation of the Transport Security Administration intended to securethe American security sector from the consequences of any securitybreaches. Of critical concern was the aviation industry and that wason the spotlight in the aftermath of September 11(UnitedStates, Government Accountability Office, 2006). The agency’s role was primarily to inform the travellingpublic so that persons can sound decisions in terms of transitsecurity. The TSA has failed in all these roles as a result ofinefficiencies arising huge spending to execute federal transportregulations. The TSA is part of the entire bloated regulatory budgetof the United States that currently stands at $710 billion(Goldenkoff,UnitedStates. Congress,2005).

Reasonsfor Selecting the Topic

  1. The transport sector needs radical changes because it is increasingly becoming unsustainable because the agency needs a lot of resources to deliver its mandate.

  2. It takes a very long time before it performs some functions. The primary reason for the formation of the agency was actually to regulate and expedite the operations in the sectors in a secure and lawful manner.

Characteristicsof the Audience

Theaudience of the proposal is the government of the United States. Inthe current legal framework the federal government through the TSAhas the powers to oversee the security and regulate the transportsector. The terrorist attacks of 2001 bolstered the government’spower to oversee transport security(Frederickson &ampLaPorte, 2002).Consequently, the transport sector experienced major changes thatincreased government bureaucracy in regulation the transport sector.The commissioners on the TSA make security decisions for thetransport sector(United States of America Congressional Record,2010). The government should consider scrapping the TSA to reduceregulatory spending. The alternative is to allow the private sectorto take the regulatory framework of the transport sector. This doesnot mean that the government will keep off transportation matters.The government will monitor the private institutions by ensuring thatthey comply with transportation security laws. The government shouldbe in charge of setting legal standards for monitoring, approvingvehicles, planes, trains, ships, ferries, and other means ofpropulsion arbitration in the vent of the disputes andcertification(Gkritza, Niemeier, &amp Mannering, 2006).

CurrentView on the Topic

Thecurrent view about transport security is that government is the onlytrustworthy body to deal with security in the transportsector(Seifert, 2004). The common argument is based on the mandatethe congress has from the public and the executive’s commitment todeal with terrorism. However, if the cost of regulation surpassesthe benefits of the process, it calls for radical reforms that ensurethe public get quality services commensurate to the investments intransport security.

Scopeof the Research Paper

Thepaper supports its thesis from both primary and secondary sources.The data used is from government reports on federal regulation from1977 to 2014. The primary focus is the cost of regulatory measuresthat aim to enhance transport security. The paper will demonstratethat these costs were still high including periods when the UnitedStates suffered attacks arising from transport security breaches.

Majorsections of the paper


Themethod of collecting data was simply making references of securityspending data from the Department of transportation.


Theresults of the findings are the inferential outcomes of the trends asdepicted by official data from the transport sector.


Thefindings are the basis of the discussion that supports the view thatTSA should changed to oversee private regulation rather than be adirect regulator of the transport sector.

References:The primary sources are mainly official documents from the UnitedStates Department of Transport. The secondary sources are journalarticles and books with a similar reform perspective on transportsecurity.

Assignment3: Persuasive Paper Part 1: A Problem Exists

TheTransportation Security Administration (TSA) refers to an agency thathas powers over the security of all the travelers in the UnitedStates. After the death of over three thousand people in September2001 through terrorist attacks in Virginia and New York, differentmotions were proposed that led to the formation this agency. Theprimary aim of establishing the agency was to curb similar attacks inthe future (Bragdon, 2010). Thousands of people and organizationssupported the agency being driven by the desire to protect theircountry. These people demonstrated the freedom of movement of bothpeople and goods by strengthening the transportation systems. The TSAhas failed in all the roles that it was founded for and ends upspending huge amounts of money to strengthen the transportregulations (UnitedStates, Government Accountability Office,2012). Research shows that the budget of the TSA agency in America isover $ 70 billion. The Transport Security Administration should bechanged by setting new standards that will enhance excellence in thecountry`s transportation system.

TSAis an agency under the United States Homeland Security that ismandated at ensuring national security. The core values argued areintegrity, team spirit and innovation. The government is the onlybody that can promote security of its citizens (UnitedStates, Government Accountability Office,2012). The general public argues that the agency is reluctant inperforming the duties leading to series of coordinated terroristattacks in numerous cities in America. Urgent reforms should beenforced that will facilitate quality services to the public. Themajor problem that affects the TSA is that there were changes thatled to an increase in government bureaucracy in the control overtransportation sector. The department lacks resources making it tospend more funds in regulations rather than delivering its mandate.There also numerous suggestions proposed to make the commission moreeffective. The state can consider reviewing the standards or allowingthe private sector to regulate the transport industry (Bragdon,2010).

Thefirst problem affecting the transport sector is environmental issues.The relationship between the two is paradoxical becausetransportations have socioeconomic benefits. Despite the benefits,transportation has greater impacts on the environmental systems. Thetransportation sector has been the main source of emitting harmfulsubstances in the environment that in turn affects the living and nonliving organism (Seifert,2014).These issues have resulted to controversy in the policies and rolesof the transport industry. The public sector blames the governmentdemanding for infrastructure development. They also argue that thegovernment should utilize the tax payer’s money in construction,maintenance and studies that will help generate user-friendlyfossils. The government and agency differentiate in certain issuesleading to insufficient transport systems (Bragdon,2010).It is argued that during planning, these commissioners lackconsideration of the costs of transportation resulting to moreenvironmental issues. Little is done to reduce environmentalpollution while the number of automobiles is steadily increasing.Transportation activities have resulted to the increased levels ofcongestion and motorization that links it to environmental issues.

Thesecond problem is the social issue. Transportation activities havedirect and indirect consequences to human populations both in publicand private sectors by interfering in their ways of living. Inaddition, they alter the way individuals relate to each other, workand meet their daily needs. Most people have been displaced fromtheir land due to infrastructure development (Seifert,2014).The greatest impact of road construction is that it leads tomigration of the landless and end up settling to the unclaimed landson newly constructed roads. In addition, they go beyond the limits ofroads forcing the government to spend additional funds inconstructing new roads.

Researchfurther argues that the increased number of displaced people has adirect impact to deforestation. The construction of roads pushespeople further and end up settling in the forests. Transportation hasan impact on the way people relate to each other. Infrastructuredevelopment interferes with people`s way of life by relocating someto different parts of the country. The impact of social factors isthat they lead to disruption of human-made resources, businesses,displacement of people and community among others (Seifert,2014).TSA is unable to formulate policies that will help protect theseissues

Politicalfactors have also been a major problem in the transportation sector.Politics play a major role when hiring, recruiting and firing ofcommissioners in the transport sector. Studies show that most of theinfrastructures such as construction of roads, airports and waterwayswere initiated way before a cost-benefit analysis was done (Seifert,2014).The residents in the United States argue that social commitments havebeen abandoned due to political influence. The general publiccriticizes the government for considering only the primary impacts ofroads and ignoring the secondary impacts.

Politicsaffects the community planning and urban transportation. It isbecause the commissioners of TSA fail to determine the effects ofthese projects to the community and their reaction. This results tonegative socioeconomic impacts as well as delaying commencement ofthese projects. The decision to build a highway or not lies with thegovernment and politics plays a major role in deciding the project toundertake. This has been a problem in the transport sector becausethe officials cannot make decisions independently. Political factorsinterfere with the roles of the TSA by regulating their projects andmaking them completely ineffective for rapid economic and politicalgains (Bragdon,2010).


Theproblems affecting the transportation sector has serious impacts onthe environment and the way people live. The environmental problemsare a challenge the TSA because some of the factors leading toenvironmental pollution are directly related and hence difficult toaddress. The TSA should come up with new ways of reducing thepollution by conducting research on the use of non-fossil fuels. Theyshould minimize the number of automobiles in the country becausethese are considered as the major pollutant (UnitedStates, Government Accountability Office,2012).Infrastructure should also be one of their agendas in order to reducecongestion. Most people support the view that TSA should change andinvolve private regulation because the direct agency is corrupt.Political interference has affected the way TSA performs its rolesand hence having a private commissions to enforce security issueswill greatly improve the nation`s transportation system (Bragdon,2010).The government will monitor actions of these private departments toensure that they conform to the set standards.

Thegovernment should allocate adequate funds to finance the requiredsecurity resources such as biometrics, electronic boarding pass andexplosive detection systems among others. It means that TSA should bealert with the emerging trends in order to be alert of any evolvingthreats. Research should be conducted and intelligence analyzed onthe best ways to deploy technology in resources such as subways, railand airports among others. The TSA needs to establish measures thatwill help reduce the effects that they have on the environmentranging from regional, local and globally. It includes noise,biodiversity, climate change, acid rain and smog among others (UnitedStates, Government Accountability Office,2012).



UnitedStates, Government Accountability Office(2006).Aviation security Secure Flight development and testing underway, but risks should be managed as system is further developed:reportto congressional committees.DIANEPublishing

RobertGoldenkoff,UnitedStates. Congress(2005).AviationSecurity: TSA¿sChange to Its Prohibited Items List Has Not Resulted in Any ReportedSecurity Incidents, But the Impact of the Change on Screening Oper.Is Inconclusive.DIANEPublishing

UnitedStates of America Congressional Record (2010).Government PrintingOffice


Frederickson,H. G., &ampLaPorte, T. R. (2002). Airport security, highreliability, and the problem of rationality.PublicAdministration Review,62(s1),33-43.

Gkritza,K., Niemeier, D., &amp Mannering, F. (2006). Airport securityscreening and changing passenger satisfaction: An exploratoryassessment. Journalof Air Transport Management,12(5),213-219.

Seifert,J. W. (2004). Data mining: An overview. Nationalsecurity issues,201-217.

Bragdon,C. R. (2010).&nbspTransportationsecurity.Amsterdam: BH/Elsevier.

Seifert,J. W. (2014). Data mining: An overview. Nationalsecurity issues.

UnitedStates, Government Accountability Office(2012).Aviationsecurity Secure Flight developmentand testing under way, but risks should be managed as system isfurther developed:reportto congressional committees.DIANE Publishing

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