Disorder Case Study 1 and 2
DISORDER CASE STUDY 1 AND 2 6
Disorder Case Studies 1
Part 1: Case Studies
The DSM-5 criterion apparent in Tom’s case is criterion A and C(309.81). Criterion A applies to adults that have faced exposure todeath or direct harm, while criterion C concentrates merely onavoiding conducts that remind of the traumatic incidence (Carpenter &Tandon, 2013). These are apparent in Tom, as the 9/11 attack wastraumatic, which implies that he was exposed to a possible death orinjury. The fact that he contemplates moving away from New Yorkdemonstrates his avoidance of the place that reminds Tom of thetrauma. The symptoms relate to posttraumatic stress disorder.
In reference to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, Mark has 295.70schizoaffective disorder, which falls under the classification ofschizophrenia spectrum, as well as different psychotic disorders.Mark has fixed beliefs, which he is not open to changing despite theavailability of ample proof to depict that he is hallucinating. Thisis apparent in the belief that the government listens to all hisconversations, except when in the bedroom, which is a delusion.
The psychotic disorders listed in DSM-5, provide criterion forclassifying the case of Angela. Some of the key aspects that make itpossible to determine individuals with psychotic disorders include,disorderly thinking, delusions, in addition to hallucinations(Carpenter & Tandon, 2013). Code 291.9 refers tosubstance-induced disorder, which derives from the immediate impactsof consuming or withdrawal of a substance. Since Angela is takingmethamphetamines, the substance use is linked to her disorder hence,resulting in the diagnosis of substance-induced disorder.
Justin’s diagnosis is in line with DSM-5 297.1 delusionaldisorder. Justin demonstrates an idea that is unusual, and thefriends note that the conduct is uncharacteristic of him. Lining hisroom with tin foil is the alien behavior, and the fact that he claimsindividuals are listening to his conversations implies that he isdelusional.
Part 2: Treatment Scenarios
Assuming the treatment of delusional disorder, personalpsychotherapy is encouraged in place of group, since the sickindividual is suspicious. Psychotherapy entails cognitive therapythat happens by employing sympathy. The therapist asks hypotheticalissues as a manner of therapeutic questioning. The role of thetherapists ought to be demonstrating support, which eases complianceto treatment (Carpenter & Tandon, 2013). A different treatmentapproach entails using antipsychotics like pimozide, which assists inthe management of anxiety possible to derive from the disorder.
It is probable to differentiate a psychotic disorder from a disorderarising from substance abuse through the application of differentialdiagnosis. It entails ruling out that the patient has taken anysubstances (Heckers et al, 2013). Interviewing is an integral tool ingetting information concerning the sick person’s life condition. Itis also necessary to have a history prior to diagnosis. Psychoticdisorders are characterized by mood changes, while substance abuse ismainly a withdrawal symptom or result of dependence on a drug.
When handling a client having co-occurring posttraumatic stress, aswell as substance use disorders, the special consideration is thatthe client might be using the substance to manage stress derivingfrom the trauma. Treatment commences with cognitive therapy, to alterthe manner the client feels and behaves through alteration thebehavior and thought procedures. The objective is to comprehend howthe thoughts cause the client to depend on a substance and in turntreat the substance related disorder.
Disorder Case Studies 2
Part 1: Case Studies
Allyson’s diagnosis falls under the cluster anxiety disorders. Thediagnosis is social anxiety disorder, in addition to substancedependence. The disorders are characterized by the fact that sheselects a job, which isolates her meaning the lack of interactionwith others. Substance dependence due to the presumption that moredrug intake enhances her self-worth.
The diagnosis criterion apparent in Karen’s case according toDSM-5 is anxiety disorder. The disorder is characterized by anxiety,phobia signs among other obsessive-compulsive signs (). In specific,the diagnosis for Karen is substance-induced anxiety disorder, whichhappens following withdrawal from using a substance. She developsanxiety, irritability and constant worry after withdrawing fromalcohol use.
Mary’s diagnosis is obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is one of theanxiety disorders. According to DSM-5, an individual with thedisorder, they need to demonstrate an anxiety, recurrent thinking,sensations or conducts making them drawn to act compulsively(Endrass, Riesel, Kathmann & Buhlmann, 2014). A major sign isrepeated hand washing apparent in Mary. The individual must havepersistent apprehension when foreseeing the incidence of the fearobject. Mary demonstrates this through her fear of germs.
Part 2: Treatment Scenarios
Treating social anxiety disorder entails counseling, in addition toantidepressants depending on the client’s level of anxiety. Theantidepressants are aimed at minimizing depression and anxiousness.Combining counseling and medication makes it more effective to ensurelong-term treatment in individuals that have apprehension and depictanxiety in numerous social conditions (Endrass, Riesel, Kathmann &Buhlmann, 2014).
Treating obsessive-compulsive disorder entails using behavior,cognitive behavior therapy, as well as medication. The therapyemploys the exposure and ritual avoidance method. It is a slowprocedure of ensuring the client is capable of tolerating theiranxiety by not engaging in the ritual conduct. For instance, askingthe client to touch something that may have germs, which is exposure,and ensuring the ritual of washing hands does not happen.
It is probable to differentiate if a client has an anxiety disorderthrough their behavior. In the case of anxiety, the client becomesanxious when exposed to the condition, or substance causing the fear(Zimmerman et al, 2010). On the contrary, persons with asubstance-induced disorder act normally, except when using orwithdrawing from a substance.
Case Studies 1
Carpenter, W. T., & Tandon, R. (2013). Psychotic disorders inDSM-5 Summary of changes. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6,266-268. doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2013.04.001
Heckers, S., Barch, D. M., Bustillo, J., Gaebel, W., Gur, R.,Malaspina, D., & … Carpenter, W. (2013). Review: Structure ofthe psychotic disorders classification in DSM‐5. SchizophreniaResearch, 150(DSM-5),11-14. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.039
Case Studies 2
Endrass, T., Riesel, A., Kathmann, N., Buhlmann, U. (2014).Performance monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder and socialanxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(4),705-714. doi:10.1037/abn0000012
Zimmerman, M., Dalrymple, K, Chelminski, I., Young, D., &Galione, J. N. (2010). Recognition of irrationality of fear and thediagnosis of social anxiety disorder and specific phobia in adults:Implications for criteria in DSM-5. Depression & Anxiety,27(11), 1044-1049. doi:10.1002/da.20716