Effort Reward Imbalance 6


Nameof Class

TheName of the University

TheCity and State where it is located

EffortReward Imbalance

Managementis challenged on how to motivate their workers to achieve optimumproductivity. Effort reward imbalance (ERI) model assesses thework-related factors that motivate workers to deliver on their workobligation. Organizations could motivate workers by eliminatingoccupational stress, which is the difference between the worker’seffort and the employers’ reward (Feldt, Huhtala, Kinnunen,Hyvonen, Makikangas &amp Sonnentag 2013, p. 65). Occupationwell-being means that the worker is free from high-risk stress thatadversely affects performance (Feldt et al. 2013, p. 64). Burnout isdefined as a mental distress that adversely affects the mind and isassociated with sleep and health disorders (Magnavita&amp Garbarino 2013).Workers exposed to flexible work hours, transformative leaders, andhigh-reward for their effort are motivated to work (Nuebling,Seidler, Garthus-Niegel, Latza, Wagner &amp Hegewald 2013, p. 2).According to the ERI model, an employee is happier if the effortinput is appreciated by rewards like pay rise, self- esteem, andcareer opportunities (Siegrist, 1996).

McGreggor’stheory Y leaders motivate their workers by granting them autonomy toresources since they believe that complete independence and personalcontrol enriches physiological effort (Chukwuemeka &amp Anigbogu2014, p. 46). A study found that effort reward imbalance (ERI) wasstrongly correlated with work-related emotional exhaustion andpsychological burnout (Feldt, Huhtala, Kinnunen, Hyvonen, Makikangas&amp Sonnentag 2013, p. 65). Therefore, managers can increaserewards to workers to reverse the effects of burnout and promote theuse of bonuses to appreciate over-committed workers.

Transformingleadership theory aims at creating a mutual relationship between theleader and workers to collaborate and motivate each other to engagepositively and morally in creating the most ideal work environment(Chukwuemeka &amp Anigbogu 2014, p. 48). Transformational leadershipenhances performance by motivating employees to perform. Workerscould be motivated by decreasing the ERI. Good leadership influencesthe employees to deliver on the company mission, according topromised rewards (Rawung 2013). Finding by study asserts that healthworkers report of receiving flexible work time, collaborativemanagement practices, and job-related assistance offered bytransformative leaders are motivated to work (Chukwuemeka &ampAnigbogu 2014, p. 45).

Thescenario is further explained by the Abraham Maslow theory ofhierarchy of needs that require that workers’ physiological needsbe satisfied to motivate them to work (Ghanbarpour &amp Najmoloda2013, p. 2). Likewise, employers could use the Maslow Hierachy ofNeeds theory to rectify the situation. Workers who perceive thattheir positions are secure exhibit enhance self-esteem that result inhigher performance (Rizal,Idrus, Djumahir &amp Mitarti 2014, p. 67). Whenever heavy workload interferes with family life, the workersexperience a negative work spillover that causes stress (Nazir,Kazmi, Khalid, Kiyani &amp Shahzad 2014).Therefore, motivation of workers requires the human resource managerto increase reward and opportunities such as salaries, job-security,self-esteem, and career opportunities according to Maslow theory(Finne,Christensen &amp Knardahl 2014, p. 3).High-reward programs motivate workers and prevent the possibledevelopment of chronic burnout due to job demands interfering withprivate life activities. Job over-commitment, which is defined asstriving to please the employer in return for approval, remains themain cause of burnout and management can satify needs of the workersto motivate them to deliver (Siegrist 1996, p. 29). The mind mapshows the extrinsic and the intrinsic relationship of the individualand the organization towards the ERI. The main intrinsic relationshipbetween an employee and the negative effect of ERI is that theover-committed individual develops health disorders due towork-related burnout (Ganster&amp Rosen 2013).

Workersare motivated to perform better on their duties if the employer usesthe expectancy theory, which asserts that an individual behavior isaltered by effort-to-performance expectancy, performance-to-rewardexpectancy, and reward valences (Chaunhary 2014). Theory ofexpectancy and justice asserts that a worker is motivated as a resultof the ability and effort to perform at optimum. Motivation is equalto the valence, expectation of effort, performance and reward(Chaudhary 2014, p. 2). Thus, the HR manager should organize a way ofproviding rewards that enforce motivation. According to the theory ofexpectancy and justice, inner rewards appreciate the skills of theworker in delivering results while external rewards are associatedwith good salary, status, and status associated with work expertise(Ghanbarpour &amp Najmoloda 2013, p. 4). A study showed that highlyrewarded employees are likely to exhibit a positive work-life balance(Hämmig2014).

Inconclusion, the effort reward imbalance (ERI) model asserts thatrewards motivate the employee to perform better. The Maslow theory ofHierachy of needs assert that satisfaction of all needs is necessaryto motivate workers. Job flexibility translates to good work andfamily life. The theory of expectancy aligns theeffort-to-performance expectancy, performance-to-reward expectancy,and reward valences to motivate workers. Employees needtransformative leaders who collaborate to make the workplace moreefficient. Lastly, management could use the McGreggor’s theoryY-oriented leadership to ensure that workers have flexible work andautonomy to resources. The mind map shows how appreciated effortresult in stable emotional and psychological health that motivatesworkers compared to the low-reward to an over-committed worker. Atthe same time, the ratio of reward and effort is largely determinedby the intervention of the organization by offering appropriatebalances to offset workers from straining.


Chaudhary,P 2014, ‘A study over expectancy theory of motivation in smallscale industries in NCR’, InternationalJournal of Research &amp Development in Technology and ManagementScience, vol.21,no. 1, pp.1-9.

Chukwuemeka,EO &amp Anigbogu, T 2014, ‘Comparative analysis of motivation andleadership theories as tools for effective public sectoradministration’, EuropeanJournal ofBusiness and Social Sciences,vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 39-55.

Feldt,T, Huhtala, M, Kinnunen, U, Hyvonen, K, Makikangas, A &ampSonnentag, S 2013, ‘Long-term patterns of effort-reward imbalancesand over-commitment: Investigating occupational well-being andrecovery experiences as outcomes’, Work&amp Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health &ampOrganizations,vol. 27, no.1, pp. 64-87.

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Nazir,N, Kazmi, S, Khalid, A, Kiyani, TM &amp Shahzad, A 2014,‘Work-family and turnover intentions: Mediating effects of stress,’InternationalJournal of Humanities and Social Sciences,vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 92-100.

Rawung,F ‘The effect of leadership on work motivation of higher educationadministration employees (A study at Manado State University)’,IOSRJournal of Business and Management,vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 28-33.

Rizal,M, Idrus, S, Djumahir, D &amp Mitarti, R 2014, ‘Effect ofcompensation on motivation, organizational commitment and employeeperformance (studies at local revenue management in Kendari City)’,InternationalJournal of Business and Management Invention, vol.3,no. 2, pp. 64-79.

Nuebling, M, Seidler, A, Garthus-Niegel, S, Latza, U, Wagner, M &ampHegewald, J 2013, ‘The Gutenberg health study: measuringpsychosocial factors at work and predicting health and work-relatedoutcomes with the ERI and the COPSOQ questionnaire’, BMCPublic Health,vol. 13, no.538, pp. 1-13.

Siegrist,J 1996, ‘Adverse health effects of high effort-low rewardconditions at work’, Journalof Occupational Health Psychology,vol. 1, pp. 27-43.

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