Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response
EmergencyPreparedness and Disaster Response
Humankind,despite all the genius and great achievements, is still far fromperfect. Since the construction has to continue, it takes acollective knowhow of many people. However, a weak link might emergeanywhere along the chain of human interaction and assistance that cancreate a disastrous situation (Ryan, 2014).
Asa result of faulty construction and poor building maintenancepractices in my community, the Locals live under great fear ofpossible building collapse disasters in case of a strong wind or agreat earthquake. Some of the buildings end up obtaining illegalpermission for occupation from the authorities due to corruption(Feinstein, 1976).
Incase of a building collapse disaster, it would be horrible especiallyif residents already occupied the building. In a collapsed building,there is the need to analyze the building, asses its history and tryto establish where people are most likely to be. Due to lack ofproper street lighting and the nonexistence of emergency plans, therescue operation would prove much harder (Feinstein, 1976). The densepopulation and the closeness of the buildings would make the areaalmost inaccessible by rescue teams and their machines. Accessibilityto the disaster site is very crucial. The longer it takes to reach alocation, the less probability it becomes to find people alive (Ryan,2014).
Uponaccess to the disaster area, the rescuers would be required to bevery efficient in their search modes. For instance, the mostdeveloped rescuers look for voids, or pockets where people aretrapped when walls collapses, or where survivors could be hidden suchas bathtubs or stairwells (Feinstein, 1976). Thermal image camerasare used in areas where the visibility bad because of bad weather orat night. The rescuers also use sniffer dogs to locate the victimsand carbon dioxide analyzers that assist in detecting unconsciousvictims who could still be breathing (Ryan, 2014).
Therescue operation would involve manually digging out people from thedebris. There should be specialized tools for cutting throughconcrete wood and metal such as concrete saws, jackhammers, chainsaws, cranes, and bulldozers. Chains, cables, and rope haulingsystems could be used to remove large pieces of stones or slabs ofconcrete. Unfortunately, in case of delayed access or a deficiency inrescue methods or tools it would result in survivors who are in amore critical position. Quick and efficient first aid and medicalcare would be very crucial (Ryan, 2014).
Nursesfind themselves dealing with a broad range of patient related issues.The issues include complications, annotations, improvements andcommunications with physicians. This makes a nurses judgment theheart of care delivery (Verma, 2013).
Clinicalexperience is an important skill in the nursing profession. The topicremains complex such that one requires humility and simplicity tograsp the concept. Not only does analysis guide the hearts of nursesbut also those of physicians and other care providers. Making aclinical diagnosis is a difficult task for nurses. The hardshipresults are from intellectual and professional maturity required.Particularly, a clinical assessment is dependent on one’s abilityto pay attention, reason and summarize to come up with a logicaldeduction. (Feinstein, 1976).
Uponthe arrival in the hospital, the nurses will establish a nursing careplan for each patient. The initial patients to reach the hospitalshall be the least severely injured. This is because they are mobilethan the most injured who may require stabilization before they aremoved. The nurse will use clinical judgment to conduct triage (Verma,2013). This is a method used to sort casualties and create a priorityfor treatment by the subsequent teams. The reasoning behind it isthat assisting less ill-patients could prevent life-saving responsesto other people who may perish, consequently. Hence, the nurse willbe required to conduct a rapid assessment using the triage sieve. Thepriorities are numbered from one to three in descending order ofneed. They are also color coded (Olney, 1998).
P1is used to define those who need immediate attention and would diewithout immediate life-saving they are given the code red. P2 definesintermediate priority of patients who need high intervention but theycan wait for a few hours, and they are given the code yellow (Ryan,2014). P3 defines delayed priority of patients who need medical care,but the health care experts can safely delay and give patients thecolor code green. The Dead is the last classification. The group isnecessary as it reduces the usage of inadequate resources on personswho are beyond assistance. They are given the color code black(Verma, 2013).
Majorityof the patients suffer from wounds, fractures, or both. For thefractures, the nurses’ priority is locating and establishing thetype of fracture. There are five unique types of fractures. The firsttype includes the incomplete fracture that only involves a portion ofthe bone. Second, the complete fracture, which involves the entirebone cross section. Third, the closed fracture does not extendthrough the skin (Borgialli, 2003). Third is the open bone fragmentsthat extend through the muscle and skin. Finally is the pathologicalfracture that occurs in a diseased bone. The nurses’ goals areextensive and include ensuring that the fracture is stabilized, thepain is controlled, and complications are prevented or minimized.Besides, they develop a plan to meet the patients’ need’ afterdischarge (Olney, 1998).
Criticalthinking skills enable a nurse to perform a nursing assessment,intervention or patient advocacy. As for the wounds and fractures,the nurse requires monitoring changes, recognizing the changes asthey happen, interpreting the changes and obtaining new informationthat will assist in designing a course of action. There is no singlecorrect answer to nursing problems, and critical thinking will enablethe nurse to weigh all the options, prioritize his/her goals andexpedite the next step (Olney, 1998).
Communicationskills will enable the nurses to establish a patient-centeredapproach. They will obtain and provide information in acomprehensible way. The nurses can listen to what the patient say andprovide information that permit the victims and their relatives tomake the right decisions (Borgialli, 2003).
Teamworkskills will be necessary to gather evidence and solicit for help. Thenurse will be required to liaise, listen and be respectful tocolleagues and the multi-disciplinary team. Through teamwork, thenurse will obtain the support necessary for both plannings on how tohandle the emergency and in execution of the set work plan to handlethe pressure of the crisis (Borgialli, 2003). Finally, sharing skillsare crucial as they enable the nurse to learn and get feedback fromhis/her colleagues regarding the decision-making. After feedback, thenurse requires reflection skills to reflect on the decisions made andconsider the outcomes of such decisions. This will enable learningfrom experience and enhance the future practice delivery (Olney,1998).
Everyhealth institution usually has an emergency response system thatresponds to significant incidences with wider public healthemergencies. Amongst the nurses, there are also first responders,emergency physicians, clinicians and public health professionals(Verma, 2013).
Toimprove the community’s response to possible earthquakes that maycause collapse of buildings, a mitigation program is necessary toprevent property damage and disaster costs injury and deaths fromincreasing. I would suggest earthquake mitigation strategies to beundertaken before, during and after the disaster (Borgialli, 2003).
Beforethe disaster, people should be trained on how to evaluate andestablish risks in their houses. They should also identify safeplaces in each room in the house and locate safe places outside thehouse. Further, they should come up with an emergency communicationsplan in case they are separated by the occurrence of the disaster.The government should also control the construction of buildings sothat there is enough space for easy access by the rescue teams(Verma, 2013).
Duringthe disaster, the community should be taught how to take cover whileindoors and to refrain from houses and electricity cables ifoutdoors. There should be training in first aid to help the injuredpersons where appropriate.
Borgialli,D. (2003). "Healthy People 2010" Emergency Medicine Module:A Survey of Emergency Medicine Residency Programs and ValidationStudy. AcademicEmergency Medicine, 457-458
Feinstein,A. (1976). Clinicaljudgement.Huntington, N.Y.: Krieger.
Olney,R. (1998). The Role of Clinical Neurophysiology in ClinicalTrials.Journalof Clinical Neurophysiology, 15(2): 95-95
Ryan,R. (2014). Claimingthe doctor`s heart.New York: Harlequin Love Inspired.
Verma,K. (2013). Base of a Research: Good Clinical Practice in ClinicalTrials.Journalof Clinical Trials,3 (128): doi: 10.4172/2167-0870.1000128.