Encyclopedia entry ANTI-FRACKING ACTIVISM
Encyclopediaentry ANTI-FRACKING ACTIVISM
Frackingis an argot term for hydraulic fracturing of oil or gas (Wilber 12).It is the procedure of drilling into fractures in rocks and injectingfluids to force the crack to open further, for the purposes ofdrilling oil and gas. This process is carried out vertically. Leading drilling companies have used this method across the world.Fracking is popular amongst some of the largest European economies,such as England, and the United States of America. The recentimprovement in fracking technology has increased the production ofcrude oil significantly. It is estimated that the world economiessaves almost five billion dollars per day by using the hydraulicfracturing in crude oil production. Additionally, frackingtechnologies have significantly improved the world economy throughestablishment of cities and industries as well as creation ofemployment. A very good example is the contribution to the Ohioeconomy in the United States (Brown, 2007).
Frackinghas greatly revolutionized the energy industry, however, in theprocess, prompted major environmental concerns thus, great criticismfrom environmentalists. The first concern is the amounts of waterthat need to be transported to the fracking site, which havesignificant environmental impacts. The second concern is thechemicals that are used in the process, which have been found tocontaminate groundwater around the fracking sites. This oil and gasmining process has been linked by many to global warming, and this isthe reason anti-fracking activism has taken shape swiftly over therecent past. However, some people have criticized the move byenvironmental activists to strongly oppose to fracking technologies.Some supporters of flacking technologies have argued that theanti-flacking movement is driven by the ‘big moneys’ involvedrather than real environmental concerns (Montgomery & Smith,2010).
Internationally,there has been an uprising anti-fracking movement with concerns thatRussia continues to play a part in the anti-fracking movements(Higgins 3). The major concern of anti-fracking activists in Russiais that fracking distracts firms and governments from investing inrenewable sources of energy, such as wind and tidal energy. Therehave been speculations from the leading media houses that Russia isbehind the anti-fracking campaign (Higgins 6). However, there hasbeen no definitive proof in quantifying the claims. However, what isknown is that the country has one of the most active environmentalactivists in Europe, and such a major environmental concern cannot gounnoticed.
Alyokhina,M., Yekaterina S. & Nadezhda, T. (2012). PussyRiot Closing Statements. N1.N 1, 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.<https://nplusonemag.com/online-only/online-only/pussy-riot-closing-statements./>.
Brown,V. J. (2007). "Industry Issues: Putting the Heat on Gas".EnvironmentalHealth Perspectives (US National Institute of Environmental HealthSciences)115 (2): A76.
Higgins,A (2014). "Russian Money Suspected Behind FrackingProtests." TheNew York Times.The New York Times, 30 Nov. 2014. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.<http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/01/world/russian-money-suspected-behind-fracking-protests.html?_r=0>.
Montgomery,C. T. & Smith, B. (2010). "Hydraulic fracturing. History ofan enduring technology". JPTOnline (Society of Petroleum Engineers):26–41,fromhttp://www.spe.org/jpt/print/archives/?via=2010/12/10Hydraulic.pdf
Wilber,T (2012). Underthe surface: Fracking, fortunes, and the fate of the Marcellus Shale.Cornell University Press.
Civilsociety according to Jan (2013), is a political space wherebyvoluntary networks, groups, associations and movements come togetherto advance their common interests. It includes nongovernmentalorganizations and charitable groups that show interest in the welfareof the general public. Some of the most important activities of civilsociety relates to human rights, democracy, constitutionalism,justice and environmental activism (Edwards, 2004). Civil society hasexisted and impacted on human society for many years. Although themeaning and nature of the civil society has significantly changedwith time, there reasoning is relatively the same. For example, theglobalization of the world societies and divergent sources of fundinghas transformed the nature of civil society in the modern world(2009). Through collective actions, civil society organizationsimpose social constructs or orders as they seek change. The civilsociety is always present wherever and whenever voluntaryassociations want to shape rules that govern the society. The rise ofcivil societies can be attributed to modernity and globalization oran attempt to upgrade traditional based regulations that have provento be inadequate for governance.
Civilsociety impacts on governance in terms of the institutionalprocesses, policy content and broader social structures. It alsoinfluences democracy by making liberal democracy possible. It gives avoice to the public who would have been excluded from affairs ifcivil societies never existed. There exists a close connectionbetween civil society and democratic states because the concept ofcivil society and individual rights emerged at the time when the ideaof the government was reconceived. The civil society influencessocial cohesion through promoting mutual understanding across deepcultural divides creating collective solidarity.
Theimpact of civil society on institutional processes has affected howpolicies are made on regional and global issues. Many civil societyactors participate in decision-making processes at global levels likethe World Bank. While in that level, they provide new measures andpolicy inputs. They have also urged international developments tobecome transparent and accountable. According to Jan (2013), civilsocieties impact content policies and have helped reframemacro-economic policies through civil society efforts. They alsooffer moral legitimacy when organizations pursue noble objectives.
Edwards,M (2004). CivilSociety.Cambridge, England: Polity Press.
Ehrenberg,J. (2009). CivilSociety: The Critical History of an Idea.New York: New York University Press.
FrancescaS. (2013). “Queer Space, Pride, and Shame in Moscow,” SlavicReview72.3 (Fall 2013): 458-480.
JanA. S. (2013). Perspectiveson the definition, diversity, impacts and legitimacy of civil society,fromhttp://schoolforcivilsociety.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/What-is-Civil- Society.pdf
WIKI:Civilsocietyby EmpoweringWomen in Russia
Thecivil society is a term used to refer to a number of organizationsthat operate to stand for the rights of people as observed by thestate. Civil society entails every person who is keen on ensuringthat the government of the day respects and upholds the rights of thecitizens. Civil society has had a huge contribution in the expansionof the democratic space in different parts of the world (Anders,2006).There are numerous non governmental organization and charity groupsthat constitute the civil societies. In regard to the rights of womenin Russia, the civil societies involve non-governmentalorganizations, community based organizations, women`s groups like theZhenskii Svet and international organizations. It is important tonote that the civil society in Russia has faced a lot of challenges.This is mainly due to the political challenges that have faced thecountry in the second half of the 20thcentury. Nonetheless, the civil society groups play an important roleespecially among disadvantaged groups in the Russian society (Alfred,2005).According to Hemment (2007), civil societies form an integral part ofhelping the women`s rights groups to fight for their rights. Hemment(2007) cites Sarah Henderson while exploring the dynamics that shapethe democratic space of the civil society in Russia. According toHenderson (2003), civil societies are powerful in the process ofovercoming the challenges faced by women and promoting their rights.
Theactivities of the civil society provide the basis for understandingthe level of the democratic space in Russia and the extent of successthat women`s rights groups should anticipate. Therefore, in theirquest to promote the rights of women in Russia, internationalfoundations should explore the role of the civil societies in thecountry. This will prevent certain constraints that civil societiesface due to limitations in the country related to democratic space.According to Henderson (2003), donor efforts by foreign organizationsand domestic activists can also face the constraints of civilsociety. Therefore, understanding civil society in Russia and factorsthat affect them is important in streamlining the relationshipbetween international foundations and Russian women`s groups.
Alfred,B. (2005). Russiancivil society: a critical assessment,Armonk, NY: Sharpe.
Anders,U. (2006). Post-SovietCivil Society: Democratization in Russia and the Baltic States,New York, NY. Routledge.
Hemment,J. (2007). EmpoweringWomen in Russia. Activism, Aid and NGOs.Indiana: Indiana University Press
Henderson,S. (2003). BuildingDemocracy in Contemporary Russia: Western Support for GrassrootsOrganizations.New York: Cornell University Press
KirillMedvedevis one of the most exciting artists and poet in the modern Russia. Hewas born in 1975 Moscow has been called an interesting, capriciousvoice of Russian literature. There have been numerous writings abouthim in addition to being recognized as a poet. Medvedev has also beena campaigner for labor, as well as a member of “The RussianSocialist Movement, Vpered”. He is a frequent contributor to “ChtoDelat” and various other opposition magazines. He owns a smallpress called “the Free Marxist Publishing House” (Medvedev,2012). The press has published translation of Goddard, Pasolini andEagleton, in addition to publishing many books connected to politics,literature and art.
Inthe recent past, during the lifetime of Kirill, there are numerouschanges that have taken place in the history of Russia. Kirill is apart of the generation of writers from Russia that have progressed toadvance from the decline of the USSR. The poet comes from a Sovietintelligentsia family. Therefore, he could have learned the artisticskills during his early life. The father was a journalist, acquiringpopularity during peretroika. Kirill’s mother was an editor in awell recognized publishing house. Because of his father’s gamblingdebts, Kirill’s family was compelled to relocate on numerousoccasions as an endeavor to evade mafia enforcers. The poet was inone incidence taken captive by the mafia enforcers. His individualexperience during the Yeltsin period is limited, as is written in“around me”, where he explains that at some instance was adetrimental, capitalist chaos, while on the other hand was prevalentstarvation, scarcity, cynicism, degeneration as well as suffering.
Kirillstudied at Moscow State University, 1990s. He later advanced hisstudies at the Gorky Literary Institute starting 1996 to 2000. Afterattending both institutions, Medvedev made public two poetrycollections. These are “Incursion” and “Everything’s Bad”published in 2002. In the writings, he came up with an informal,free-verse language, which is an influence by Charles Bukowski.Kirill has translated Bukowski’s work in Russian. However, in 2003,Medvedev joined the literary world, attacking the revolting artisticimpression of the Putin period, “a putrid swamp, half-soviet, andhalf-bourgeois”.
Hedeclined all copyright on his writing in 2004, from when hiscontribution to poetry has mostly been online. He has also shiftedpublication to small individually produced publications. In a numberof permeating essays on political and cultural issues of Putinism, inaddition to issues concerning the Russian laissez-faireintelligentsia’s submissions prior to Putinism, Kirill has avoidedliterary circles. His concentration towards socialist politicalissues also sets him apart with most individuals of his generation.Through his personal writing, the poet has endeavored at blending theemancipator charge from 1917 via the inventive extensiveness ofdifferent Marxist traditions. Similarly, Medvedev also acts as anobserver and at times taking part in the movement of socialcontestation, which has been apparent in Russia from the mid-2000s.The period has witnessed a number of movements, to support housingfreedoms, education, pensions and ecological safeguard, fromcorruption or electoral deceit. Kirill Medvedev is a leader of theadvent civic poetry, which became widespread in Russia from the2000s.
Medvedev,K. (2012). It’sNo Good.Eastern European Poets Series: Ugly Duckling Presse.
Mikhail,G. (2010). CognitivePoetics and Cultural Memory: Russian Literary Mnemonics.ISBN 1136905650, Routledge.