FILM HISTORY 5
Thereare different chief principles associated with modernism. One of theprinciples includes the rejection of 19thcentury traditions the traditional art standards became rejected andmodern standards became favored (Thompson&Bordwell,2010). Another key principle is that artists favored theself-conscious voice instead of an unchanging omniscient narrativevoice. Besides, blurring of differences amid genres was another keyprinciple this helped in making poetry seem more documentary. Thesetenets helped in the development of French impressionist movementsince they supported different factors of impressionism, such as thedesire of painting modern life rather than adopting academic subjectslikes history.
Thethree main factors leading to the problems in the production ofFrench film between 1918 and 1928 were outdated productionfacilities, disunity in the film industry, and competition fromimports (Thompson&Bordwell,2010). The competition from imports made it difficult to increase theproduction since only meager sales were made. On the other hand,disunity in the industry led to the cutting back of production fromcompanies, while outdated production facilities made it difficult forcompanies to catch up with innovations, making production to go down.
Thedirectors’ beliefs concerning cinema as an art form were part ofderiving the formal qualities of impressionism. The beliefs were thatart can create an experience and the experience leads to spectatorhaving emotions. Art develops these feelings through evoking orsuggesting them (Thompson&Bordwell,2010). The impressionists’ theories of the cinema were critical intheir cinematography because they helped in stressing expressivemethods such as superimposition and slow motion, makingimpressionists emerge as an interesting group among the Frenchfilmmakers.
TheFrench impressionism declined in the late 20s due to the followingfactors stylistic diffusion in the production of film, the declinein the independence of directors, and the introduction of sound(Thompson&Bordwell,2010). Pressures from inside and outside played a part in the declineof the movement. For example, considering inside pressures, disunityamid the impressionists and the decline of the directors’independence due to lacking finances led to the decline of themovement. Besides, through an outside pressure, such as theintroduction of sound it was difficult for impressionists gainingtheir independence. This led to the decline of the movement.
Duringthe War Communism, the Soviet film industry was involved in differentactivities and was faced with different problems. The film industrywas involved in making revolutions to the production of films. Firmsin the film industry took most of their equipment and fled to othernations. A major problem faced by the film industry during thisperiod was the introduction of strict controls of the raw film stockthat was in existence. The New Economic Policy helped in solving thisproblem since it meant a swift reappearance of film stock andequipment owned by producers that did not emigrate (Thompson&Bordwell,2010). During this period, the film industry became involved intraining producers.
Theobjectives of Constructivism involved making society view film artdifferently through the different experiments that the movement cameabout (Thompson&Bordwell,2010). The Constructivism led to an extraordinary combination ofabstract graphic designs and practical functions. The Montagemovement became closely associated with Constructivism Montageutilized practical functions from the movement in making differentevents come to pass.
Outof the three theorists, Kuleshov emerged as the most conservative. Hethought of montage as being an editing technique meant for emotionaland clarity effects. On the other hand, Vector emerged as being moreradical he emphasized that for editing a filmmaker needs tocalculate the variations amid shots. Eisenstein came up with the mostobscured Montage conception he was of the idea that Montage did nothave a limit to editing and to the Constructivist art generally(Thompson&Bordwell,2010).
Mise-en-scenedescribes anything that may appear before a camera and itsarrangement like the arrangement of scenes (Thompson&Bordwell,2010). The Mise-en-scene was used in elliptical cutting. In Montagefilms, the elliptical editing used jump cuts these changed theMise-en-scene since the elliptical editing has the effect ofcompelling the spectator in making sense of the action of the scene.
Thompson,K., & Bordwell, D. (2010). Filmhistory: An introduction.New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.