Growth Hormone Effects on Human

GrowthHormone Effects on Human

Agrowth hormone is a hormone composed of a small protein that isproduced by the pituitary gland. It is then released to the bloodstream where it carries out its function. The function of growthhormone is different depending on the age of a particular individual.Different amounts of this hormone are produced and released atdifferent stages in ones life. For the growth hormone to functionproperly, a right amount of it should be produced and secreted intothe blood streams. The growth hormone has a wide range of effects onhuman. This paper brings out clearly the growth hormone effects onhuman.

Growthhormone is a small protein produced in the pituitary glands andsecreted in the blood stream to carry out its functions in the body.It consists of a complex set of hormones made in the hypothalamus ofthe brain and the intestinal tract which control the production ofgrowth hormone (King, 29). During normal conditions, production ofthe growth hormone is more at night than it is during the day. Thiswould therefore imply that it is not meaningful to carry out tests toestablish the level of growth hormone during the day. Variousscientists who have taken time to measure the average levels ofgrowth hormones came to a conclusion that it is more during childhoodstage, increases and reaches its peak at adolescence stage and startsto decline from the middle age (King, 108). Growth hormone has a widerange medicinal use across the ages. In children, it is used intreatment of growth disorders while in adults it helps treatdeficiency of growth hormone. It is very useful in children as itencourages and promotes their growth and development. It also helpsin the regulation of body fluids, sugar levels, and metabolism offats.

Growthhormone applies its effects to human either directly or indirectly.The direct effect is felt when the hormone works on a specificreceptor found in the cells. The indirect effects on the other handare as a result of the growth hormone on another hormone which issecreted by the liver. These effects include growth, metabolic,metabolism of the lipids (proteins, and carbohydrates), gigantism andacromegaly, and performance and enhancement effects. The secretion ofgrowth hormone has a wide range of promotion of growth effects onceit acts on the cellular targets. It helps promote and stimulate thegrowth of various tissues and also helps increase the growth of bone.It also has an important role in the growth of muscles while at thesame time helping in the differentiation of a certain progenitorcell, a myoblast, which plays a key role in giving rise to musclecells (King, 59). These effects are indirect and are bound to takeplace as a result of the effect of the growth hormone on anotherhormone. This hormone is secreted by the liver and is known asinsulin-like growth factor 1, abbreviated as IGF-1.

Growthhormone plays a major role in the metabolism of proteins,carbohydrates, and lipids. In the metabolism, the growth hormoneeffect is direct while in other cases it is indirect with IGF-1 beingthe key mediating hormone. In the metabolism of lipids, growthhormone promotes the use of lipids. This is by helping in thebreakdown of triglycerides and by carrying out oxidation in the cells(Natelson et al, 409). Growth hormone is also effective in themetabolism of proteins. Growth hormone promotes the uptake of aminoacids and synthesis of proteins while at the same time reducing theoxidation of protein in the various body tissues. Growth hormone isalso helpful in the metabolism of carbohydrates. This is majorly byhelping regulate blood glucose. It suppresses the ability of insulinto promote uptake of glucose into the peripheral tissues by applyingthe anti-insulin activity. An in increase in the gluconeogenesis inthe liver is also aided by growth hormone (Natelson et al, 412).

Inas much as growth hormone is useful in the promotion of muscle,bones, and other important body organ’s growth, more than averageamounts of this hormone leads to an abnormal growth of these tissueand organs. This result into a condition referred to as gigantism inchildren and acromegaly in the adults (King, 181). In most cases,this condition is as a result of presence of benign tumor in thepituitary gland with the other cases being as a result of rare tumorsin the lungs and pancreas making hormone secretions that in turn makethe pituitary glands to generate excess growth hormone. In children,the effect is usually an abnormal increase in height while thecounterpart adults develop bone deformities. There are also othercases whereby growth hormone is produced in low levels resulting in aflat rate or slow growth in children. Adults experience changes inmuscle mass, energy, cholesterol levels, and bone strength. Theseconditions are fortunately diagnosable through blood tests or x-raysand the appropriate medication to correct them administered.

Thereexists a synthetic growth hormone whose use was approved by the FDAin the 1980s to help treat short stature and poor growth. The drug ishowever of late not commonly used for the reasons that were approvedby the FDA. Many people often use Human growth hormone alongsideother drugs to help them in muscle building and enhancement ofathletic performance (Holt et al, 321). The human growth hormone isalso used by other people as a dietary supplement to combat theeffects of aging. There are however possible side effects with itsuse such as nerve, joint or muscle pain, high cholesterol level,numbness, or skin tingling. This call for its careful use and insituations where it has been administered by a medical practitionerand the use should be in line with the recommendations of the FDA.

Conclusion

Thegrowth hormone is very useful in the stimulation of growth,reproduction of cells, and regeneration of the human species. Itsproduction in the body occurs at the pituitary glands and thensecreted to blood streams to help carry out its functions. It exertsvarious effects to human. These could be directly or indirectly.Growth hormone has to be produced and secreted in the right amountsto be in a position to have positive effects. Otherwise, if notproduced in the right amounts, it results in negative effects. Thenegative effects are however correctable once identified. It istherefore important for people to be on the look out of the negativeeffects so that the cause is identified and corrected as early aspossible.

Workscited

Holt,Richard. Et al. “The history of doping and growth hormone abuse insport”. GrowthHormone. 19.4.(2009): 320-326. Print

King,Michael. Structureand functions of hormones: Growth Hormone.Indiana: Indiana State University, 2006. Print

Natelson,Brian. Et al. “Temporal changes in growth hormone, cortisol, andglucose: relation to light onset and behavior”. Am.J. Physiology. 229.2.(1975): 409-415. Print

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