Information management questions Part 1
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS 8
Information management questions
Decisions are made on daily basis by not only managers but also byall people at individual levels. The decisions made are eitherconscious or unconscious. Regardless of whether the decision is madeby individuals or managers at organizations, it is evident that thedecision making is a process and not an event (Tripathi etal., 2008).There are four key phases that the decision making process mustfollow in order to be complete. The four phases are listed andexplained below.
Intelligence: This is the initial stage of the managerial decision making process that aim at seeking information and conditions in the environment that necessitate decision making. In other words, the manager must identify a problem that requires a decision to be made (Tripathi etal., 2008).
Design: This is the second stage where the manager invents and designs various options to resolve the identified problem. Various ways of resolving a problem are identified.
Choice: This is the stage where the manager selects the best option to be implemented. The best decision with regard to the problem identified in phase one is selected.
Implementation: This phase involves the implementation of the decision made in phase three of decision making by managers. It is the action taken as a result of the decision made (Tripathi etal., 2008).
Theweb is clearly depicted as being extremely useful in the libraries.It is clear that the web has enabled users of libraries to accessresources easily than before. Whereas libraries are said to be usingthe web for only accessing resources both in print and electronicform, research has indicated that the web has enabled users to changehow they seek and use information in the libraries. It is clear fromthe article that the physical use of the libraries has significantlyreduced. This is attributed largely to the invention of the varioussearch engines such as Google and Yahoo (Hightower et al., 2011). Theweb is essential in providing resources electronically to libraryusers who may not be in a position to access the library physically.The web also provides additional services to the web users. Webmining involves complex data analysis regarding web usage. Thesequence on web usage can be used for marketing especiallyspecialized marketing. Web mining in the libraries is aimed atensuring that the users get the best services they need.
Datamining in the library can also be used to check how well the needs ofthe users are being met. However, this is made extremely difficultconsidering that it is difficult to identify the needs and the intentof the user from the web logs collected (Hightower et al., 2011).
Mobiletechnology has brought along numerous changes and developments in thebusiness world. Information and business intelligence can be relayedto people or mobile workers who are away from the office immediately.Mobile decision makers or managers can make decisions while away fromthe office (Yang, 2010). There is no longer the need to have peopleget back to the office in order to make a decision. There are anumber of effects on organizations that exploit mobile intelligence.To start with, it is clear that such organizations have an extremelyquick decision making process. Mobile intelligence also enables theorganizations to cut on cost of having purchase computers throughwhich the employees must access business intelligence. It is alsoevident that in organization where they use mobile intelligence,there is extremely quick flow of information (Yang, 2010). Businessintelligence is sent and the receiver gets a notification either asan email or a text message. Therefore, the mobile employee will beable to respond immediately to the information provided.
Whereasa decision support system may vary in terms of its complexity, it isevident that there are a number of features such as the componentsthat remain constant. There are four main components of the decisionsupport system (Power, 2012). The data management component whichmanages and stores the information utilized in the decision supportsystem is one of the key components. Information sources includeperson, external and organizational information. The model managementcomponent is the second component, which, as the name suggests is amodel of both the decision support system and the Decision SupportSystem model management system. It is advisable to use models beforeconducting the real experiment (Power, 2012). An example of a modelmanagement component is the what-if model which determines theeffects of a decision.
Thethird component is the user interface management component whichallows the user to interact with the decision support system. Theinterface is the only component that the user of the system hascontact with. In the computer, the interface will be displayed on thescreen. Lastly, Knowledge Management Component is yet another vitalcomponent of the decision support system. The component is taskedwith the responsibility of handling data cannot be handled by adatabase due to its complexity. For example, in order to determinethe volume of work that employees can handle, the decision supportsystem must make use of the knowledge base to calculate the ratio.
Abusiness process can be viewed as a set of activities by either anindividual or a group of people that are aimed at providing good andor services to other people referred to as the customers. A businessprocess is not an event, but it involves numerous activities whichcan be put in a sequence or a flowchart (Weske, 2012). There are fivebasic steps of a business lifecycle. They are design, modeling,execution, monitoring and optimization. It is essential to highlightthat each step is dependent on the others and every step leads to theother. The process starts with the design of the business processwhich is followed by modeling. This is the step where the decisionmakers determine how the design will perform under differentcircumstances (Weske, 2012). Execution is the actual implementationof the design which is followed by the monitoring process. Thisdetermines whether there is anything within the process that can beimproved. If there are areas that need improvement, the optimizationstep is tasked with the duties and the responsibilities of making theentire process smooth and efficient.
Thesystems development lifecycle has been described as a cycle that ismainly used in the systems and software engineering as well as theinformation systems. The need for the lifecycle is to ensure that thesystem meets to customers’ need. The lifecycle follows strict stepsas described below the lifecycle starts with the planning stage.This is where the duties are assigned and cost of the project isassessed. The requirements for the project are also determined atthis stage. Design is the next step that follows after planning. Atthis stage, the requirements and support are translated into detaileddesigns (Avison, 2013). At this stage, it is essential to determinewhether the system being designed will meet the requirements set. Adesign is developed at the end of this stage and contains technicaldetails of the information system. Development and testing stagefollows the design stage (Avison, 2013). The designed system isdeveloped here and various tests such as performance tests arecarried out to ensure that the system meets the demand.Implementation phase entails the installation of the system in theworkplace and the training of the staff on how to use it. Operationsand maintenance is the phase where the system is operational and thesponsor’s needs are met. Routine maintenance of both hardware andsoftware are done. Disposition is the last stage of the lifecyclewhere the system is regarded as obsolete. The software, data and thehardware are disposed off following the laid down procedures andguidelines (Avison, 2013).
Duringthe implementation stage of SDLC, an enhanced system is put in placein the production environment. Users are trained about computerizedsystems, data analyzed and the processes evaluated. The stagecomprise of four major conversion strategies. The first strategy ispilot run. It includes smaller trial systems that are subset of theentire system. It is run with data from previous periods for a partof the system. If successful, the whole system is adopted. The secondstrategy is direct changeover. The old system is replaced with a newone. This is considered risky and system training and testing isrecommended. The other strategy is parallel run. It entails runningboth the manual and computerized systems simultaneously for aspecific period. It is considered less risky but expensive. Thefourth strategy is phased changeover. The new system is introducedone section at a time.
Anexample of my personal experience is the strengths, weakness,opportunities and threats. They help me specify my personal goals andthe factors favorable and unfavorable to meeting my set objectives.The strategies I would use are strengths and opportunities becausethey give added advantages over others. I would not use weaknessesand threats because they could lead me into trouble.
BusinessProcess Management refers to an approach adopted by a business inorder to ensure that the business activities are more effective andeffective. These activities undertaken by the company are capable ofadapting to the changing environment. The BPM can be effectivelymanaged by use of software that are customized made based on userrequirements. Examples of
BusinessProcess Reengineering refers to the use of information technology toachieve improvements. Leaders aim at refocusing on company values,redesigning and rethinking of business processes, management systems,job definitions and enhancement of work flow among others. Theprimary goal of BPR is redesigning all the business processes inorder to improve in the essential areas such as service, cost andquality.
BusinessActivity Monitoring refers to a software used by companies in orderto help monitor business activities. These activities are computerbased. It helps analyze the critical opportunities that would enablethe company make more profits.
Tripathi,P. C., Tripathi, P. C., & Reddy, P. N. (2008). Principlesof management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Pub.
HightowerC, Sih J, and Tilghman A. Recommendations for benchmarkingWeb site usage among academic libraries. Coll Res Libr.2011.  Jan 59(1):61–79.
Yang,L. T. (2010). Research in Mobile Intelligence: MobileComputing and Computational Intelligence. Hoboken:John Wiley & Sons.
Power,D. J. (2012). Decision support systems: concepts and resources formanagers. Westport, Conn., Quorum Books.
Weske,M. (2012). Business process management: Concepts, languages,architectures. Berlin: Springer.
Avison,D. E. (2013). The information systems development life cycle:A first course in information systems. London:McGraw-Hill Companies.
Salvendy,G. (2012). Handbookof industrial engineering: Technology and operations management.New York, NY [u.a.: Wiley.