Introduction to Microbiology

Introductionto Microbiology


Introductionto Microbiology



Microbiology100 usually emphasizes on the integral role played by microbiology inhuman affairs as well as our daily lives. This is because somemicro-organisms usually cause harm on humans, while others causebenefits by participating in crucial global cycles. In other words,this course examines in depth the impact and science of microbiologyon all humans affairs.

Importanceof microbiology

Microbiologyusually makes it easy for health professionals to understand clearlyhow microorganisms spread infections, where they are found, how theygrow and multiply, their infections control, their infectionsprevention, as well as how the infections are treated. It alsoassists health professionals to connect effectively the conceptspresent in the real world with scientific knowledge to provide theproper care needed by patients.

Comparisonbetween death by infection and death by warfare

Deathby infection usually results after a patient dies from an infectiousdisease while, death by warfare usually results after an individualdies from injuries he or she gets during the war.

Issuessurrounding micro-bacterial resistance

Antibioticresistance usually happens when an antibiotic drug loss its abilityto kill or even effectively control bacterial growth. This meansthat, bacteria continue to grow and reproduce even in presence of therecommended therapeutic concentrations of an antibiotic. Prakash &ampJohri (2011) content that antibiotic resistance is mainly caused byrepeating improper antibiotics use. Additionally, bacteria developresistance through different mechanism which include developingability to counterbalance the antibiotic before it cause harm,rapidly pumping out the antibiotics, changing the site of antibioticattack, and lastly through mutation. Furthermore, antibioticresistant infections can be prevented through administeringantibiotics only when it is necessary and beneficial in theappropriate doses and duration.


Sexuallytransmitted diseases also known as STIs (Sexually transmittedinfections are usually caused by some microorganisms, which have theability to be spread from one individual to another through intimatecontact and sexual activity. Additionally, it is usually possible foran infected person to transmit the STDs without his or her partner’sknowledge. Examples of STDs include syphilis, gonorrhea,trichomonas, Chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B andC, genital herpes, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Infectionshave killed more humans than any other causes of deaths globally.

Differencesbetween clinical microbiology and microbiology

Whilemicrobiology usually deals with each tiny creature, their effects onnature, plants, and in human beings clinical microbiology deals withculturing, analyzing, identifying, and isolating all micro-organismsfrom clinical specimens (Prakash &amp Johri, 2011). Furthermore,clinical microbiologists usually perform susceptibility testing whichguides then when choosing the appropriate antimicrobial treatment.

Differenttypes of defense mechanisms

Physicalbarriers generally include the mucous membrane, earwax, tears,stomach acid, skin, and the normal urine flow, which washes outalmost all microorganisms present in the urinary tract. Second, theimmune system defense mechanism usually eliminates the organisms thatenter the body through all physical barriers by using antibodies andwhite blood cells (Prakash &amp Johri, 2011). Lastly, thenon-specific defense mechanisms they comprises of chemical defenses,inflammation, and fever.


Apathogen is referred to as anything that usually causes disease. Andthey include bacterium- example bacterial meningitis, fungus-example athlete’s foot, and virus- example hepatitis A, B, and C.

Examplesof host microbe

Thediscourse first assesses symbiosis, which refers to a closeinteraction and association of two dissimilar organisms that areliving together. Secondly, it discusses commensalism, which is anassociation where one organism benefits while the other one does notbenefit or suffer any harm. Third, mutualism- this is a relationshipwhere both the host and the microbe benefits from one another.Lastly, parasitism- this is a symbiotic relationship where themicro-organism is living at the cost of the host (Prakash, &ampJohri, 2011).

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Celltheory mainly refers to the notion that all cells are fundamentalunit of structure found in each living thing. This theory is veryimportant because it is one of the biology foundations. Cobb (2011)assert that the development of this cell theory occurred was madepossible by the invention of compound microscope by Zacharias Jansen,a Dutch and a spectacle maker around 1950s while Anton VanLeeuwenhoek modified the microscope lens. The cell was firstdiscovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. However, Hooke’s observationdid not give the actual indications of a cell (Cobb, 2011). HenriDutrochet came up years later and modified the cell theory by provingthat cell is very essential in all living organisms. The modern celltheory generally states that all living organisms or things are madeof their products and cells, new cells are formed when old celldivide into two, and cells are very essential when building differentunits of life (Cobb, 2011).


Cytoskeletonusually provides a significant structural framework for all cell aswell as determines cell shape. The function of mitochondria is toproduce energy during the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) productionthrough the TCA Cycle (Pardee, 2011). Lastly, the function of DNA ismainly to encode the chain of amino acid deposits or residues presentin proteins, by means of the genetic code.


Cobb,A. B. (2011). Celltheory.New York: Chelsea House.

Pardee,J. D. (2011). Cellorigin, structure and function: How cells make a living : a visualapproach.San Rafael, CA: Morgan &amp Claypool Life Sciences.

Prakash,A., Satyanarayana, T., &amp Johri, B. N. (2011). Microorganismsin environmental management: Microbes and environment.Dordrecht: Springer.

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