Journal 4 Journal 4




Topic1: Motivative Operations


Thistopic involves establishment and abolishment of operations in whichan establishing operation is also defined as a stimulus condition. Astimulus condition increases the effectiveness reinforced on eventsand also increases the occurrences of a particular behavior. On theother hand, abashing operation reduces the reinforcement effect andthe frequency of most behaviors reinforced by various events. Children with developmental disabilities and autism may experienceevery day establishing operation effects. However, behavior evoked bymotivative operations is mostly learned.

Theestablishing operation is equated to the frustration or problematicbehavior in students especially when they experience change insituations. This is mostly an occurrence if a situation that is notexpected occurs. Motivative Operations are classified into twoconditioned and unconditioned in which both are motivational becausechances of a behavior occurring at the same time increases the amountof power a reinforcer holds with regards to the behavior. There arevariables that determine the effectiveness of reinforcement invarious events but only if the individual’s history has thedesirable result.

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Motivativeoperation has the effect of either altering behavior or alteringvalue. In terms of value altering it is considered that value isaltered with a consequence of a certain behavior by increasing orreducing reinforcement. On the other hand, behavior alteringsuppresses or evokes behavior related to behavior that one had in thepast. The topic shows that motivation is not in the student butrather in the surrounding environment. Motivation is mostly dependenton the individual and not the surrounding. In addition when an eventbecomes important to a student, he/she is likely to do whatever ittakes to make sure it occurs exactly as they want it.

Moreover,a particular behavior that is chosen to be reinforced resulting fromthe effects of motivative operations should be key in trainingimplementation. If a reinforcer is termed as valuable, he/she will dowhatever it takes to make sure they obtain the position. Therefore,as an instructor one should make sure that behaviors that areinappropriate are not reinforced while those that are acceptableshould be reinforced. Operant behaviors must be maintained by makingthem accessible to reinforcers that have not learned the benefits ofhaving this kind of behavior.

Topic2: Student Support Services


Itis important to note that students who have extreme emotionalproblems are not capable of concentrating on their academic duties.This topic therefore shows that the school community should be alerton problems that grasp students such as drug and alcohol abuse. Thescope has been widened recently in order to deal with other problemsaffecting students including problems related to mental health.Increased school attendance and a significant reduction ofdisciplinary actions resulting from unwanted behavior are as a resultof student support services.

Thereare a lot of students who benefit from this program hence schoolprofessionals that have been trained accordingly are assigned toidentify students who may need their help. This has contributed toearly detection of any behavior abnormalities hence improving thechances of learning improvement or success achievements. An educationprofessional should ensure that a student support service exists inthe educational institution before joining it. In order to ensurethat a student may have an emotional or mental problem the schooladministration should gather data in form of questionnaires from theteachers who may know the individual better because of the regularinteractions with them. However, for younger children the parentsshould be interviewed.

Thereis a specific strategy in which the school support services team canshare their concerns with parents by asking if they have noticed thesame behavior or problem when the student is at home. This will helpthe parents recall what they may have ignored or seen as an actualproblem. The student support services team should not criticize thestudent’s problem but rather be empathetic towards the student’sproblem. A positive change will be observed if focus is kept onbuilding partnerships with parents rather than passing judgment.

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Thistopic shows the importance of these services to students henceeducation professionals should always consider them as the backboneto a student’s mental stability. Graduation rates and retention ofstudents is guaranteed once the student support services performeffectively. I have realized that these services have not been takenas seriously as they should and the governing bodies do not addressthis issue. It should be noted that student drop out only wastes thetaxpayers money as well as the potential of the student.

Itshould be taken into account that students are dependent on theseservices and they cannot afford to get help from outside sources. Ipropose that the government should direct funding toward the studentsupport services centers so that new staff may be hired, theircapacity may increase and students’ demands met. The studentsupport services should always be at the forefront because of themajor role it plays in the school.

Topic3: Principles of Maintenance and Generalization


Inthis topic focus is fixed on generality which means a behavioralchange may extend to different settings. The outcomes of generalityare response maintenance, stimulus generation and responsegeneralization. Response generalization is the continuation of aparticular behavior after intervention is no longer being performed.Stimulus generation is defined as transfer of learned behavior fromone setting to the setting that has not been taught. On the otherhand, response generalization involves the behavioral changes thathad no reason to be intervened but it is related to behavior thatneeds intervention.

Interventionis considered when there is generalization of the changes inbehavior, in other words it is considered when the student behaviorstarts the changing process. The teacher should then consider thefact that the skills they are impacting in the students may not gobeyond the classroom. Therefore, teachers should maintain theacceptable behaviors that they instill in students. There are variousstrategies that a teacher can use to maintain and generalize changesin behavior, one of them is to make sure to work and observe thestudent so that you may inquire if the new skills they have acquiredare being used in different settings.

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Generalizedbehavior requires systematic planning in order to change. Targetbehaviors should be selected that are capable of using the existingnatural forms of reinforcement. I realize that the tactics andstrategies that are used to promote generalized behavior are varied.The target behavior should therefore be controlled by stimulus thatis contrived from the instructional setting or teaching setting whichwill then encourage the learner to acquire skills on self management.Two other methods are a requirement in ensuring that the behaviorgeneralization is successful.

Ihave noted that for intervention of any type to be used in ensuringbehavior change, the intervention should not be used indefinitely.Hence there are distinctive components that can be used in thetraining program that will shift from an intervention environment toan everyday environment. It is important to note that not alllearners will need just one intervention, but rather they will need aseries of ongoing interventions so that constant program evaluationand monitoring are obtained. This topic has been relevant to me interms of the importance that has been placed on generalized behaviorand this will help me in my educational career in that I will haveinfluence over a group of learners whom I can instill desired skillsthat will help them in their future endeavors. It will be importantto me to know that I can instill the right skills that will help alearner use them throughout their lives. It is also interesting tonote the way the generalized behavior works because it just needs onetarget to get to the rest of the targets. This shows the importanceof peers in an individual’s life, who have the desired skills thatrub off on their peers and it ends up being relevant to them alltheir lives. Tactics that can be used to encourage generalizationshould be studied keenly so that they can be enforced and hence helpin motivating or influencing people’s lives.


Kerr,M. M., &amp Nelson, C. M. (2010).&nbspStrategiesfor addressing behavior problems in the classroom.Boston: Pearson.

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