Logic

LOGIC 1

Question and Answer

  1. The nation-state is accountable to all citizens since it owes its existence to the national loyalty that defines its territory and limits its power. When embedded in the law of nation, state’s rights become realities.

Answer:

It’sdone. There is an argument in text since it has the inference sign,since. It indicates the premise.

When embeddedin the law of nation, state’s rights become realities. (conclusion)

it owes itsexistence to the national loyalty that defines its territory andlimits its power. (premise)

When embeddedin the law of nation, state’s rights become realities. (conclusion)

Both thepremise and the conclusion are Categorical Syllogisms since they haveencouraged the use of general terms (national and nation-staterespectively).

A. 2.it owes its existence to the national loyalty that defines itsterritory and limits its power. (premise)

B. 3.When embedded in the law of nation, state’s rightsbecome realities. (conclusion)

AaB 1.

p. 2.it owes its existence to the national loyalty that defines itsterritory and limits its power. (premise)

├ q 3.When embedded in the law of nation, state’s rightsbecome realities. (conclusion)

AaB 1.When the existence of national loyalty is embedded in the law ofnation, state’s rights become realities.

  1. A human is the image of God partly through the mandate received from his creator to subdue, to dominate, the earth. In carrying out this mandate, man, every human being, reflects the very action of the creator of the universe.

Answer:

It’sdone. The statement is argumentative since it contains a conclusionand a premise. The premise is trying to justify the correctness ofthe conclusion.

In carrying outthis mandate, man, every human being, reflects the very action of thecreator of the universe. (Conclusion)

2. A human isthe image of God partly through the mandate received from his creatorto subdue, to dominate, the earth. (premise)

3. In carryingout this mandate, man, every human being, reflects the very action ofthe creator of the universe. (Conclusion)

In thisstatement, both the premise and the conclusion are categoricalpropositions since their subjects and predicates are matching. Theyliken the nature of man as being similar to that of God. Generally,the propositions are universally affirmative.

S is P 1.

2.A human is the image of God partly through the mandate receivedfrom his creator to subdue, to dominate, the earth.

3. In carryingout this mandate, man, every human being, reflects the very action ofthe creator of the universe. (Conclusion)

S is P 1.The very action of the creator of the universe is to subdue, todominate, the earth.

2.A human is the image of God mandated by his creator to subdue, todominate, the earth.

3. Man, everyhuman being, reflects the very action of the creator of the universe.(Conclusion)

  1. A human ought to imitate God both in working and also in resting, since God himself wished to present his own creative activity under the form of work and rest.

Answer:

It’s done.There is an argument in text since it has the inference sign, since.It indicates the premise.

3. A humanought to imitate God both in working and also in resting (conclusion)

2.God himself wished to present his own creative activity under theform of work and rest. (premise)

3. A humanought to imitate God both in working and also in resting (conclusion)

Thepropositions in this statement are categorical propositions sincethey both come into an agreement that rest should follow work. Theyequate (compare) the actions of higher being to that of a lesser one.

S is P 1.

2.God himself wished to present his own creative activity under theform of work and rest. (premise)

3. A humanought to imitate God both in working and also in resting (conclusion)

S is P 1. Ahuman ought to work and rest to present his own creative activityjust as God did.

2.God himself wished to present his own creative activity under theform of work and rest. (premise)

3. A humanought to imitate God both in working and also in resting (conclusion)

  1. Rights do not come into existence merely by declaring them. They come into existence when they are enforced. They can be enforced only if there is a rule of law. And there is a rule of law only when there is a common obedience, in which the entity enforcing the law is also subject to it.

Answer:

It’s done.The statement does not contain an argument since it contains theword, if. It gives the reason of why rights do not come intoexistence by mere declarations. Generally, it describes how laws cancome into existence.

Rights do notcome into existence merely by declaring them. (Conclusion)

2. They comeinto existence when they are enforced. (premise)

3. They can beenforced only if there is a rule of law

4.There is a rule of law only when there is a common obedience, inwhich the entity enforcing the law is also subject to it.

4. Rights donot come into existence merely by declaring them. (Conclusion)

The propositionis a compound one since it contains the conjunction if, whichconnects two simpler claims that hold some truth in them.

q&gtp 1.

p 2.They come into existence when they are enforced. (premise)

3. They can beenforced only if there is a rule of law

4.There is a rule of law only when there is a common obedience, inwhich the entity enforcing the law is also subject to it.

├ q.4. Rights do not come into existence merely by declaring them.(Conclusion)

q&gtp 1. If rights are to come into existence, then they should beenforced.

p2. They come into existence when they are enforced. (Premise)

├ q.4. Rights do not come into existence merely by declaring them.(Conclusion)

  1. It is characteristic of work that it first and foremost unites people. In this consists its social power, which is the power to build a community. Thus, both those who work and those who manage, or who own businesses must in some way be united in this community.

Answer:

There is noargument in the text. The statement just emphasizes the importance ofwork to the people in the community.

3. It ischaracteristic of work that it first and foremost unites people.(Conclusion)

2.Those who work and those who manage, or who own businesses must insome way be united in this community. (Premise)

3. It ischaracteristic of work that it first and foremost unites people.(Conclusion)

The premise inthis statement follows the rule of compound syllogism. It containsthe consequent word, thus, which depicts the consequence ofpeople working together.

q&gtp 1.

p2. Those who work and those who manage, or who own businesses must insome way be united in this community. (Premise)

├ q3. It is characteristic of work that it first and foremostunites people. (Conclusion)

q&gtp 1. Itis the characteristic of work that it first and foremost unitespeople, thus those who work and those who manage businesses must insome way be united in this community.

p2. Those who work and those who manage, or who own businesses must insome way be united in this community. (Premise)

├ q3. It is characteristic of work that it first and foremostunites people. (Conclusion)

  1. When a person works, using all the means of production, he also wishes the fruit of this work to be used by himself and others, and he wishes to be able to take part in the very work process as a sharer in responsibility and creativity at the workbench to which he applies himself.

Answer:

The statementdoes not contain any argumentative basis in it. It is most of adescription of working and sharing in a workbench.

3. When aperson works, using all the means of production, he also wishes thefruit of this work to be used by himself and others (Conclusion)

2.He wishes to be able to take part in the very work process as asharer in responsibility and creativity at the workbench to which heapplies himself (premise)

3. When aperson works, using all the means of production, he also wishes thefruit of this work to be used by himself and others (Conclusion)

Both thepremise and the conclusion exhibit a categorical form of syllogism.This means that the premise describes the conclusion.

S is P 1.

P2. He wishes to be able to take part in the very work process as asharer in responsibility and creativity at the workbench to which heapplies himself (premise)

S 3.When a person works, using all the means of production, he alsowishes the fruit of this work to be used by himself and others(Conclusion)

S is P 1.When a person works, using all the means of production, he alsowishes the fruit of this work to be used by himself and others, andhe wishes to be able to take part in the very work process as asharer in responsibility and creativity at the workbench to which heapplies himself

  1. The living may have interest in consuming the earth`s resources, but it was not for this that the dead labored. And the unborn depend upon our restraint. Long-term social equilibrium, therefore, must include ecological equilibrium. This is the thesis, which environmentalists are apt to express in terms of `sustainability`.

Answer:

The statementcontains an argument. It is trying to prove and emphasize on theimportance of human and environmental sustainability. However, itleaves the door open to opposing opinions.

4. Long-termsocial equilibrium, therefore, must include ecological equilibrium.(Conclusion)

2. The livingmay have interest in consuming the earth`s resources, but it was notfor this that the dead labored (Premise).

3.Long-term social equilibrium, therefore, must include ecologicalequilibrium.

4. Long-termsocial equilibrium, therefore, must include ecological equilibrium.(Conclusion)

The propositionis a compound syllogism as it contains the conditional word,therefore, which foretells of consequences if a certain trend of theliving is not corrected to enable sustenance of natural resources.

p2. The living may have interest in consuming the earth`s resources,but it was not for this that the dead labored (Premise).

q. 4.Long-term social equilibrium, therefore, must include ecologicalequilibrium. (Conclusion)

q&gtp 1.The living may have interest in consuming the earth`s resources,but it was not for this that the dead labored. Therefore, Long-termsocial equilibrium must include ecological equilibrium.

p2. The living may have interest in consuming the earth`s resources,but it was not for this that the dead labored (Premise).

├ q.4. Long-term social equilibrium, therefore, must include ecologicalequilibrium. (Conclusion)

  1. In our day women have made great strides in attaining a remarkable degree of self-expression in cultural, social, economic and political life, as well as, of course, in family life. The journey has been a difficult and complicated one and, at times, not without its share of mistakes. But it has been substantially a positive one, even if it is still unfinished because obstacles, which persist in various parts of the world, still prevent women from being acknowledged, respected and appreciated in their own special dignity.

Answer:

It done. Thestatement contains a form of argument. It contains the word, butwhich shows the other side of the struggle of women as beingdifficult but successful.

In our daywomen have made great strides in attaining a remarkable degree ofself-expression in cultural, social, economic and political life, aswell as, of course, in family life (Conclusion).

2. The journeyhas been a difficult and complicated one and, at times, not withoutits share of mistakes.

3.But it has been substantially a positive one, even if it is stillunfinished because obstacles, which persist in various parts of theworld, still prevent women from being acknowledged, respected andappreciated in their own special dignity (Premise).

4. In our daywomen have made great strides in attaining a remarkable degree ofself-expression in cultural, social, economic and political life, aswell as, of course, in family life (Conclusion).

Both thepremise and the conclusion seem to be categorical claims since theyenlist all women as the subject. The premise also leads the way forthe conclusion to claim its truth.

P.3. But it has been substantially a positive one, even if it is stillunfinished because obstacles, which persist in various parts of theworld, still prevent women from being acknowledged, respected andappreciated in their own special dignity (Premise).

S. Inour day women have made great strides in attaining a remarkabledegree of self-expression in cultural, social, economic and politicallife, as well as, of course, in family life (Conclusion).

S is P 1.In our day, women have made great strides in attaining aremarkable degree of self-expression in cultural, social, economicaland political life, and family even though because obstacles, whichpersist in various parts of the world, still prevent women from beingacknowledged respected and appreciated in their own special dignity

P. 3.But it has been substantially a positive one, even if it is stillunfinished because obstacles, which persist in various parts of theworld, still prevent women from being acknowledged, respected andappreciated in their own special dignity (Premise).

├S. In our day women have made great strides in attaining aremarkable degree of self-expression in cultural, social, economicand political life, as well as, of course, in family life(Conclusion).

  1. Recently national communities and international organizations have turned their attention to another question connected with work, one full of implications: the question of disabled people. They too are fully human subjects with corresponding innate, sacred and inviolable rights and, in spite of the limitations and sufferings affecting their bodies and faculties, they point up more clearly the dignity and greatness of man. Since disabled people are subjects with all their rights, they should be helped to participate in the life of society in all its aspects and at all the levels accessible to their capacities.

Answer:

It is done. Theproposition is argumentative in nature. It contains the inference,since which indicates justification of the conclusion which istrying to claim that disability is not inability and that thesepeople deserve some form of help.

3. Sincedisabled people are subjects with all their rights, they should behelped to participate in the life of society in all its aspects andat all the levels accessible to their capacities (Conclusion)

2.They too are fully human subjects with corresponding innate, sacredand inviolable rights and, in spite of the limitations and sufferingsaffecting their bodies and faculties, they point up more clearly thedignity and greatness of man (Premise).

3. Sincedisabled people are subjects with all their rights, they should behelped to participate in the life of society in all its aspects andat all the levels accessible to their capacities (Conclusion)

The premise andthe conclusion are both categorical claims as they contain universalaffirmative syllogism. Furthermore, there is the aspect ofgeneralization of the disabled and their natural rights to equalshare to employment.

S is P 1.

P2. They too are fully human subjects with corresponding innate,sacred and inviolable rights and, in spite of the limitations andsufferings affecting their bodies and faculties, they point up moreclearly the dignity and greatness of man (Premise).

S 3.Since disabled people are subjects with all their rights, they shouldbe helped to participate in the life of society in all its aspectsand at all the levels accessible to their capacities (Conclusion).

S is P 1.Disabled people should be helped to participate in the life ofsociety in all its aspects and at all the levels accessible to theircapacities since they are human subjects with natural, sacred andinviolable rights in spite of limitations and sufferings affecting bytheir bodies and faculties, they point up more clearly the dignityand greatness of man.

P2. They too are fully human subjects with corresponding innate,sacred and inviolable rights and, in spite of the limitations andsufferings affecting their bodies and faculties, they point up moreclearly the dignity and greatness of man (Premise).

├ S 3.disabled people are subjects with all their rights, they should behelped to participate in the life of society in all its aspects andat all the levels accessible to their capacities (Conclusion).

  1. Work is not only good in the sense that it is useful or something to enjoy it is also good as being something worthy, that is to say, something that corresponds to a person’s dignity, that expresses this dignity and increases it. If one wishes to define more clearly the ethical meaning of work, it is this truth that one must particularly keep in mind. Work is a good thing for humans because work enables a human to not only transform nature, adapting it to his own needs, but also allows a person to achieve fulfillment as a human being.

Answer:

It’s notdone. The statement is not argumentative since it only highlights theimportance of work to a person’s dignity.

3.Work is a good thing for humans because work enables a human to notonly transform nature, adapting it to his own needs, but also allowsa person to achieve fulfillment as a human being (Conclusion).

2.It (work) is not only good in the sense that it is useful orsomething to enjoy it is also good as being something worthy, that isto say, something that corresponds to a person’s dignity, thatexpresses this dignity and increases it (Premise).

3. Work is agood thing for humans because it enables a human to not onlytransform nature, adapting it to his own needs, but also allows aperson to achieve fulfillment as a human being (Conclusion).

The statementcontains an element of a compound claim. It contains the conditionalword, if which acts as the antecedent.&nbspIn addition, thepremise contains the truth about the conclusion.

q&gtp 1.

p2. It (work) is not only good in the sense that it is useful orsomething to enjoy it is also good as being something worthy, that isto say, something that corresponds to a person’s dignity, thatexpresses this dignity and increases it (Premise).

├ q.3. Work is a good thing for humans because it enables a human to notonly transform nature, adapting it to his own needs, but also allowsa person to achieve fulfillment as a human being (Conclusion).

q&gtp 1. Work is not only good in the sense that it is useful or something toenjoy it is also good as being something worthy, that is to say,something that corresponds to a person’s dignity, that expressesthis dignity and increases it. Therefore, it is a good thing forhumans because it enables them to not only transform nature, adaptingit to his needs, but also allows a person to achieve fulfillment as ahuman being.

  1. In rearing children, mothers have a singularly important role. Through the special relationship uniting a mother and her child, particularly in its earliest years of life, she gives the child that sense of security and trust without which the child would find it difficult to develop properly its own personal identity and, to establish positive and fruitful relationships with others. This primary relationship between mother and child also has a very particular educational significance in the religious sphere, since it can direct the mind and heart of the child any formal education begins. In this decisive and sensitive task, no mother should be left alone.

Answer:

It’s done.The statement is argumentative due to the presence of the word, sincethat acts as the inference. It validates the claims in theconclusion. However, it allows for other varying opinions to be made.

3. In rearingchildren, mothers have a singularly important role (Conclusion).

2. In thisdecisive and sensitive task, no mother should be left alone(Premise).

3. In rearingchildren, mothers have a singularly important role (Conclusion).

Both thepremise and the conclusion contain categorical claims. They have thegeneral description of the subject (mothers), in addition to thepremise justifying the conclusion.

S is P 1.

P 2. Inthis decisive and sensitive task, no mother should be left alone(Premise).

S 3. Inrearing children, mothers have a singularly important role(Conclusion).

S is P 1. In rearing children, mothers have a singularly important role andshould not be left alone in this decisive role.

├ P 2.In this decisive and sensitive task, no mother should be left alone(Premise).

S 3. Inrearing children, mothers have a singularly important role(Conclusion).

  1. Another serious problem is found in places where the intolerable custom still exists of discriminating, from the earliest years, between boys and girls. If, from the very beginning, girls are looked down upon or regarded as inferior, their sense of dignity will be gravely impaired and their healthy development inevitably compromised. Such discrimination in childhood will have lifelong effects and will therefore prevent women from fully taking part in the life of society.

Answer:

The statementis non-argumentative since it only describes the aftermath, later inadulthood of giving preference to the boy child and isolating thegirl child.

3. Suchdiscrimination in childhood will have lifelong effects and willtherefore prevent women from fully taking part in the life of society(Conclusion).

2.If, from the very beginning, girls are looked down upon or regardedas inferior, their sense of dignity will be gravely impaired andtheir healthy development inevitably compromised (Premise).

3. Suchdiscrimination in childhood will have lifelong effects and willtherefore prevent women from fully taking part in the life of society(Conclusion).

The premise isa conditional compound claim. It contains the conditional antecedent,if which highlights the effects of abandoning the girl childearly on in life.

2.If, from the very beginning, girls are looked down upon or regardedas inferior, their sense of dignity will be gravely impaired andtheir healthy development inevitably compromised (Premise).

3. Suchdiscrimination in childhood will have lifelong effects and willtherefore prevent women from fully taking part in the life of society(Conclusion).

V is P 1.

P2. If, from the very beginning, girls are looked down upon orregarded as inferior, their sense of dignity will be gravely impairedand their healthy development inevitably compromised (Premise).

├ V 3.Such discrimination in childhood will have lifelong effects and willtherefore prevent women from fully taking part in the life of society(Conclusion).

V is P 1. If, from the very beginning, girls are looked down upon orregarded as inferior, their sense of dignity will be gravely impairedand their healthy development inevitably compromised. Therefore, suchdiscrimination in childhood will have lifelong effects and willtherefore prevent women from fully taking part in the life of society

  1. Whenever we travel by air, whenever we visit the supermarket, whenever we consume fossil fuels, we are exporting our costs to future generations. A free economy is one that is driven by individual demand. The solution is not the socialist one of abolishing the free economy since this merely places massive economic power on the hands of unaccountable bureaucrats, who are equally in the business of exporting their costs. The solution is to rectify our demands in order to bear the costs of them ourselves. In short, we must change our lives.

Answer:

Thisstatement does not contain any argument. It is descriptive in natureas it only describes the measures needed to be taken to limit actionsof consumption of fossil fuels.

3. In short, wemust change our lives (Conclusion).

2.Whenever we travel by air, whenever we visit the supermarket,whenever we consume fossil fuels, we are exporting our costs tofuture generations (Premise).

3. In short, wemust change our lives (Conclusion).

The premise isa categorical claim as it uses a universal affirmative to describethe actions of humans towards the consumption of fossil fuels at theexpense of the future generation.

P2. Whenever we travel by air, whenever we visit the supermarket,whenever we consume fossil fuels, we are exporting our costs tofuture generations (Premise).

S 3. Inshort, we must change our lives (Conclusion).

S is P 1. Topreserve the fossil fuel reserves for the future, we must change ourlive

P2. Whenever we travel by air, whenever we visit the supermarket,whenever we consume fossil fuels, we are exporting our costs tofuture generations (Premise).

S 3. Inshort, we must change our lives (Conclusion).

  1. Unlike other animals with which we come into regular contact, we are self-conscious our thoughts involve ‘I’-thoughts, ‘you’-thoughts and ‘he, she, we and they’-thoughts. Because we have language, and the intellectual structure that language makes available, we do not live like other animals, in a ‘world of perception’ alone. Our thoughts and feelings range over the actual and the possible, the probable and the necessary, the past and the future, what is and what might have been, what will be and what ought to be.

Answer:

This is anargumentative statement. It contains the inference because whichjustifies the superiority of humans to animals.

3. Our thoughtsand feelings range over the actual and the possible, the probable andthe necessary, the past and the future, what is and what might havebeen, what will be and what ought to be (Conclusion).

2. Unlike otheranimals with which we come into regular contact, we areself-conscious our thoughts involve ‘I’-thoughts, ‘you’-thoughtsand ‘he, she, we and they’-thoughts (Premise).

3.Our thoughts and feelings range over the actual and the possible, theprobable and the necessary, the past and the future, what is and whatmight have been, what will be and what ought to be (Conclusion).

The premise andthe conclusion are both contain categorical syllogism as they usegeneralization to describe human superiority to animals.

2. Unlike otheranimals with which we come into regular contact, we areself-conscious our thoughts involve ‘I’-thoughts, ‘you’-thoughtsand ‘he, she, we and they’-thoughts (Premise).

3.Our thoughts and feelings range over the actual and the possible, theprobable and the necessary, the past and the future, what is and whatmight have been, what will be and what ought to be (Conclusion).

q&gtp 1.

p 2.Unlike other animals with which we come into regular contact, we areself-conscious our thoughts involve ‘I’-thoughts, ‘you’-thoughtsand ‘he, she, we and they’-thoughts (Premise).

q3. Our thoughts and feelings range over the actual and the possible,the probable and the necessary, the past and the future, what is andwhat might have been, what will be and what ought to be (Conclusion).

q&gtp 1. Unlike other animals with which we come into regular contact, weare self-conscious our thoughts involve ‘I’-thoughts,‘you’-thoughts and ‘he, she, we and they’-thoughts.Therefore, our thoughts and feelings range over the actual and thepossible, the probable and the necessary, the past and the future,what is and what might have been, what will be and what ought to be.

p 2.Unlike other animals with which we come into regular contact, we areself-conscious our thoughts involve ‘I’-thoughts, ‘you’-thoughtsand ‘he, she, we and they’-thoughts (Premise).

├q 3. Our thoughts and feelings range over the actual and thepossible, the probable and the necessary, the past and the future,what is and what might have been, what will be and what ought to be(Conclusion).

  1. Rational beings rejoice less in filling themselves than in the sight of food, table and guests dressed for ceremonial offering. Their meals are also sacrifices, and anthropologists have occasionally argued that the origin of our carnivorous ways lies in the burnt offerings of ancient ritual. Only rational beings make gifts and it is the giving of food, usually the central episode in a ceremony, which is the core of hospitality, and therefore of those actions through which we lay claim to our home and at the same time mutely apologizes for owning it.

Answer:

The statementis an argumentative in nature as it represents the thoughts of theanthropologists, which may not be accurate and is based onassumptions.

3. Rationalbeings rejoice less in filling themselves than in the sight of food,table and guests dressed for ceremonial offering (Conclusion).

2.Only rational beings make gifts and it is the giving of food, usuallythe central episode in a ceremony, which is the core of hospitality,and therefore of those actions through which we lay claim to our homeand at the same time mutely apologizes for owning it (Premise).

3. Rationalbeings rejoice less in filling themselves than in the sight of food,table and guests dressed for ceremonial offering (Conclusion).

The premise ofthe statement is categorical in nature as it only refers to therational beings and nothing else. It also contains the termtherefore, which is a conditional compound claim.

q&gtp 1.

p.2. Only rational beings make gifts and it is the giving of food,usually the central episode in a ceremony, which is the core ofhospitality, and therefore of those actions through which we layclaim to our home and at the same time mutely apologizes for owningit (Premise).

├ q.3. Rational beings rejoice less in filling themselves than in thesight of food, table and guests dressed for ceremonial offering(Conclusion).

q&gtp 1.Only rational beings make gifts and it is the giving of food, usuallythe central episode in a ceremony, which is the core of hospitality,and therefore of those actions through which we lay claim to our homeand at the same time mutely apologizes for owning it. Therefore, theyrejoice less in filling themselves than in the sight of food, tableand guests dressed for ceremonial offering.

p.2. Only rational beings make gifts and it is the giving of food,usually the central episode in a ceremony, which is the core ofhospitality, and therefore of those actions through which we layclaim to our home and at the same time mutely apologizes for owningit (Premise).

├ q.3. Rational beings rejoice less in filling themselves than in thesight of food, table and guests dressed for ceremonial offering(Conclusion)

  1. In the fast-food culture, food is not given but taken, which is one reason why, in such a culture, nobody is properly ‘at home’. The solitary stuffing of burgers, pizzas and ‘TV’ dinners, the disappearance of family meals and domestic cooking, the loss of table manners—all these tend to obscure the distinction between ‘eating’ and ‘feeding’. This explains why many people use vegetarianism as a roundabout way of restoring that distinction. Since vegetables are gifts of the Earth, by eating them we re-establish contact with our roots.

Answer:

The statementhas an underlying argumentative tone due to the presence of theinference, since. It indicates justification of theconclusion.

Sincevegetables are gifts of the Earth, by eating them we re-establishcontact with our roots (Conclusion).

2.In the fast-food culture, food is not given but taken, which is onereason why, in such a culture, nobody is properly ‘at home’ (Premise).

3. Sincevegetables are gifts of the Earth, by eating them we re-establishcontact with our roots (Conclusion).

The statementis a categorical syllogism since is contains a universal affirmativeclaim.

S are P 1.

P2. In the fast-food culture, food is not given but taken, whichis one reason why, in such a culture, nobody is properly ‘at home’(Premise).

├ S 3.Since vegetables are gifts of the Earth, by eating them were-establish contact with our roots (Conclusion).

S are P 1.. In the fast-food culture, food is not given but taken, which isone reason why, in such a culture, nobody is properly ‘at home.’Therefore, since vegetables are gifts of the Earth, by eating them were-establish contact with our roots

P2. In the fast-food culture, food is not given but taken, whichis one reason why, in such a culture, nobody is properly ‘at home’(Premise).

├ S 3.Since vegetables are gifts of the Earth, by eating them were-establish contact with our roots (Conclusion).

  1. Obligations make distinctions. They bind me to some things, and leave me free from others. I have an obligation to my daughter to see that she is properly fed and educated, which I do not have to your daughter. Kindness is not shown by ignoring that obligation in order to satisfy the need of some stranger. On the contrary, that would be a sign of callousness and an inability to respond to real and legitimate claims against me. Thus, our first duty is to fulfill our immediate obligations to those closest to us.

Answer:

Obligationsmake distinctions (Conclusion).

P2. Our first duty is to fulfill our immediate obligations to thoseclosest to us (Premise)

S 3.Obligations make distinctions (Conclusion).

The statementcontains a categorical claim due to the existence of the consequent,thus. It only deals with the “me” character and not anygeneral subject.

P2. Our first duty is to fulfill our immediate obligations to thoseclosest to us (Premise)

S 3.Obligations make distinctions (Conclusion).

S is P 1.Our first duty is to fulfill our immediate obligations to thoseclosest to us. Therefore, Obligations make distinctions.

P2. Our first duty is to fulfill our immediate obligations to thoseclosest to us (Premise)

├ S 3.Obligations make distinctions (Conclusion).

  1. “…it is fit to take some notice of those who say, that the free expression of all opinions should be permitted, on condition that the manner be temperate, and do not pass the bounds of fair discussion. Much might be said on the impossibility of fixing where these supposed bounds are to be placed. Since if the test be offence to those whose opinion is attacked, I think experience testifies that this offence is given whenever the attack is telling and powerful, and that every opponent who pushes them hard, and whom they find it difficult to answer, appears to them, if he shows any strong feeling on the subject, an intemperate opponent.” John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, Ch. 2.

Answer:

The propositionis argumentative. It doe contain the inference, since whichtries to justify a stance on the conclusion.

“it is fit totake some notice of those who say, that the free expression of allopinions should be permitted, on condition that the manner betemperate, and do not pass the bounds of fair discussion”(Conclusion).

2.“if the test be offence to those whose opinion is attacked, I thinkexperience testifies that this offence is given whenever the attackis telling and powerful, and that every opponent who pushes themhard, and whom they find it difficult to answer, appears to them, ifhe shows any strong feeling on the subject, an intemperate opponent”(Premise).

3. “it is fitto take some notice of those who say, that the free expression of allopinions should be permitted, on condition that the manner betemperate, and do not pass the bounds of fair discussion”(Conclusion).

The statementis categorical in nature as it enforces a universal affirmativeclaim.

P2. “if the test be offence to those whose opinion is attacked, Ithink experience testifies that this offence is given whenever theattack is telling and powerful, and that every opponent who pushesthem hard, and whom they find it difficult to answer, appears tothem, if he shows any strong feeling on the subject, an intemperateopponent” (Premise).

├ S3. “it is fit to take some notice of those who say, thatthe free expression of all opinions should be permitted, on conditionthat the manner be temperate, and do not pass the bounds of fairdiscussion” (Conclusion).

S is P 1.“if the test be offence to those whose opinion is attacked, Ithink experience testifies that this offence is given whenever theattack is telling and powerful, and that every opponent who pushesthem hard, and whom they find it difficult to answer, appears tothem, if he shows any strong feeling on the subject, an intemperateopponent. Therefore, it is fit to take some notice of those who say,that the free expression of all opinions should be permitted, oncondition that the manner be temperate, and do not pass the bounds offair discussion”

P2. “if the test be offence to those whose opinion is attacked, Ithink experience testifies that this offence is given whenever theattack is telling and powerful, and that every opponent who pushesthem hard, and whom they find it difficult to answer, appears tothem, if he shows any strong feeling on the subject, an intemperateopponent” (Premise).

├ S3. “it is fit to take some notice of those who say, thatthe free expression of all opinions should be permitted, on conditionthat the manner be temperate, and do not pass the bounds of fairdiscussion” (Conclusion).

  1. “He who lets the world, or his own portion of it, choose his plan of life for him, has no need of any other faculty than the ape-like one of imitation. He who chooses his plan for himself, employs all his faculties because he must use observation to see, reasoning and judgment to foresee, activity to gather materials for decision, discrimination to decide, and when he has decided, firmness and self-control to hold to his deliberate decision.

Answer:

It is not done.The premise contains no argument as it justifies the truth in theconclusion.

“He who letsthe world, or his own portion of it, choose his plan of life for him,has no need of any other faculty than the ape-like one of imitation”(Conclusion).

2.“He who chooses his plan for himself, employs all his facultiesbecause he must use observation to see, reasoning and judgment toforesee, activity to gather materials for decision, discrimination todecide, and when he has decided, firmness and self-control to hold tohis deliberate decision” (Premise).

3. “He wholets the world, or his own portion of it, choose his plan of life forhim, has no need of any other faculty than the ape-like one ofimitation” (Conclusion).

The statementis a categorical syllogism as it represents a general affirmativestatement.

p&gtq 1.

p2. “He who chooses his plan for himself, employs all his facultiesbecause he must use observation to see, reasoning and judgment toforesee, activity to gather materials for decision, discrimination todecide, and when he has decided, firmness and self-control to hold tohis deliberate decision” (Premise).

q. 3.“He who lets the world, or his own portion of it, choose his planof life for him, has no need of any other faculty than the ape-likeone of imitation” (Conclusion).

p&gtq 1.“He who chooses his plan for himself, employs all his facultiesbecause he must use observation to see, reasoning and judgment toforesee, activity to gather materials for decision, discrimination todecide, and when he has decided, firmness and self-control to hold tohis deliberate decision. Therefore, He who lets the world, or his ownportion of it, choose his plan of life for him, has no need of anyother faculty than the ape-like one of imitation”

p2. “He who chooses his plan for himself, employs all his facultiesbecause he must use observation to see, reasoning and judgment toforesee, activity to gather materials for decision, discrimination todecide, and when he has decided, firmness and self-control to hold tohis deliberate decision” (Premise).

├ q.3. “He who lets the world, or his own portion of it, choose hisplan of life for him, has no need of any other faculty than theape-like one of imitation” (Conclusion).

  1. These qualities he requires and exercises exactly in proportion as the part of his conduct which he determines according to his own judgment and feelings is a large one. It is possible that he might be guided in some good path, and kept out of harm`s way, without any of these things. But what will be his comparative worth as a human being? It really is of importance, not only what men do, but also what manner of men they are that do it.”

Answer:

The statementis argumentative since it has a question to be answered about thequalities that he requires. In addition, it contains the term butwhich brings a different perspective to the statement.

These qualitieshe requires and exercises exactly in proportion as the part of hisconduct which he determines according to his own judgment andfeelings is a large one (Conclusion).

2.But what will be his comparative worth as a human being? It really isof importance, not only what men do, but also what manner of men theyare that do it.” (Premise)

3. Thesequalities he requires and exercises exactly in proportion as the partof his conduct which he determines according to his own judgment andfeelings is a large one (Conclusion).

The premise inthe statement is categorical as it refers to a single subject (he).He is differentiated from the general subject (human beings).

P&gtq 1.

├ p2. But what will be his comparative worth as a human being? It reallyis of importance, not only what men do, but also what manner of menthey are that do it.” (Premise)

q. 3.These qualities he requires and exercises exactly in proportion asthe part of his conduct which he determines according to his ownjudgment and feelings is a large one (Conclusion).

P&gtq 1.These qualities he requires and exercises exactly in proportionas the part of his conduct which he determines according to his ownjudgment and feelings is a large one. Therefore, what will be hiscomparative worth as a human being? It really is of importance, notonly what men do, but also what manner of men they are that do it.”

├ p2. But what will be his comparative worth as a human being? It reallyis of importance, not only what men do, but also what manner of menthey are that do it.” (Premise)

q. 3.These qualities he requires and exercises exactly in proportion asthe part of his conduct which he determines according to his ownjudgment and feelings is a large one (Conclusion).

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