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Vertical standards are applicable only to specific industry like theconstruction and marine industries while horizontal standards coversany employer in any industry. Example of such standards includes fireprotection and first aid. standards were initially taken fromthree sources Consensus standards which were developed by industrywide standard developing organization, Proprietary Standards whichwas prepared by a chain of experts in specified industries andFederal laws (Harris, 2012).

In the first place, promulgated vertical standards because itwanted to cover all utilities line maintenance including lineclearance tree trimming, providing mechanical and physical safeguardsto the maximum extent possible, controlling health hazards andhelping in investigating accidents (Spellman, 2009). Politics playedpart in this in that, some pre-existing federal laws are enforced by. This includes Federal Supply Contract Act, Federal Work Hoursand Safety Standard Act and Federal service Contract act. These actsare enforced in all industries.


Mechanical ventilation consists of local exhaust systems and generalventilation systems. Some of the circumstances where mechanicalventilation is required in welding standards include when oxygen isnot required for ventilation purposes, cooling, blowing dust fromcloths or cleaning the work area, where there is a ceiling of heightless than sixteen feet or that measures less than 10,000 cubic feetper welder, where local exhaust ventilation consist of freely movablehoods intended to be placed by welder as close for his work(Spellman, 2009).

Also, if there is need to remove fumes and smoke or produce thenumber of changes necessary to maintain fumes and welding smokewithin safe limits, where contaminated exhaust need to be divertedaway from the source of the intake air and finally when weldingmetals of toxic significance like lead base metals, metals coatedwith mercury, zinc-bearing base metals, beryllium, inert-gas-metalore welding, metals coated with chromium and cadmium coated basedmetal (Harris, 2012).

The requirement is reasonable as general ventilation forces air intoan area and dilutes contamination. This allows air to move throughspace ensuring fresh continual supply. On the other hand, localventilation removes contaminated air at its source hence preventingharmful dust, fumes and mist from contaminating workers breathing air(Spellman, 2009).


Challenges occur when implementing ’s machine guardingstandards. To begin with, regulations do not explain how toguard machine, does not tell of the machine quality or talk of thecontrol systems that are the integral part of machine’s safety. Inaddition, machine guarding depends on one method to protect theoperator and other employees in working areas. Examples are thosecreated by point of operation, rotating parts and flying chips(Harris, 2012).

There is high negligence of employees to comply with the standards.Again, the standards lack ability to deal with many issues associatedwith today’s complex systems and advanced technology and complyingwith them can lead to serious workers injuries. There are highchances of electric shocks due to unguarded protruding steel rebar.Also, there are instances of falls from elevation as a result ofunprotected sides, wall openings and floor holes. This may also be asa result of misuse of portable ladders (Spellman, 2009). In addition,flying objects, falling objects, rolling objects or swinging objectsin the construction industry may struck a worker resulting to fatalinjuries. Finally, machine cycling and its hydraulic slide may closea workers leg or hand breaking the born or even causing death. Thismay be due to lack of lock out measures to protect the worker. Toconclude, the standards are not adequate as fall accidents resultingin injuries and fatalities continue to be reported in constructionindustries.


UnitedStates. (1980).&nbspFAA-jurisdiction over workplace safety in the aviation industry: Hearingbefore a subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations,House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, second session,August 16, 1980.Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

Spellman, F. R., &amp Whiting, N. E. (2009).&nbspMachineguarding handbook: A practical guide to compliance and injury prevention. Rockville, Md: GovernmentInstitutes.

Harris, M. K., &amp American Industrial Hygiene Association.(2012).&nbspWelding health and safety: A fieldguide for OEHS professionals. Fairfax, Va: AIHA Press.

Government Institutes Research Group. (2007).&nbspOccupationalsafety and health simplified for the constructionindustry. Lanham, Md: Government Institutes.

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