Question 1 and 2
Instrumentality regards to the tools that have directly contributedin committing an offence (Schmalleger,2012). When referring to the situation of violent offence, theweapons become the instrumentality. This is because they are thetools that aided in committing the wrongdoing. Availability meanspresent and used. In the situation of the term’s impact on violentoffence, it means that the offender had a weapon, which was availableat the scene of the crime (Browne &Williams, 1989). It also means that the offender used theweapon to commit the felony.
Murder is the felony executed where an individual of sound mind, aswell as judgment, meaning the perpetrator has reached a legal age andis not mentally unstable, kills another human (Tierney,2009). Murder is an unlawful and unjustified act, which iscreated in the mind of an individual causing them to hurt another bykilling. The phrases murder and homicide may be appliedinterchangeably, yet they differ in meaning. Homicide refers to theevent that results in the passing away of person due to the actionsof another (Durrant, 2013). There are different variations as well asextents of homicide, involving justifiable or criminal negligence.Contrary, murder is a kind of homicide including malicious intentionand premeditation. A felony happens any moment an individual passesaway by being killed. The act of elimination, either intentionally ornot becomes homicide. Murders are categorized under diverse degrees,which rely on the severity of the offence and deliberation ofperpetrators. The categories are first, second or third degreemurder. For first degree, the killing involves premeditation, as wellas malice with afterthought. For instance, in California, killingthat might not have been deliberated yet took place due to a felonyas rape might be categorized as first degree. In second degree, thereis no premeditation while third degree is an action of harminganother leading to killing.
Browne, A., & Williams, K. R.(1989). Exploring the effect of resource availability and the likelihood of female-perpetrated homicides. Lawand Society Review,75-94.
Durrant, R. (2013). AnIntroduction to Criminal Psychology.New York: Routledge.
Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminologytoday: An integrative introduction (6thed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Tierney, J. J. (2009). Keyperspectives in criminology.Maidenhead: Open University Press.