Reading 1 Political
Inhis first term, President Ulysses Grant tried to seize DominicanRepublic to United States. The support for proposed treaty originatedfrom both countries. Dominican Republic supported annexation withintention of thrashing a rebellion supported by Haitian government,and desire to satisfy individual financial interest among governmentelite.
Thefact that Sumner did not like Grant was the principal motivationbehind his defends, but it does not indicate complete picture of hisopposition. Sumner was self-righteous, arrogant, and opposed manygrant projects. However, his decisions were guided by his beliefs andprinciples.
Personalgrievances between Grant and Sumner played a crucial role innegotiations, speeches, and in mouths of people, as well as pages ofa newspaper. To some extent bitterness in a relationship betweenSumner and Grant preordained fate of the treaty. Their personalities,interests, personal manners, and political styles clashed frombeginning.
Atthe end of half of 19th century, the émigré communities of Cuban inNew Orleans, New York, Tampa, Key West as well as several othercities in America served as guardians in reference to separatistideal. Most of these communities maintained political sustainabilityof separatism. The growth of economic relationship between UnitedStates and Cuba together with increasing economic and politicaldissatisfaction on Island in 19th century resulted in small andactive Cuban communities.
Whileengaging in social struggles, the leaders of working class in Cubancenters disapproved the liberal principles and accepted radicalalternatives. In particular, their appeal to workers in 1880s wasanarchism, the ideology that had attained a considerable reputationin the labor movement of Cuba. The Anarchist leaders from the Havanaregularly visited Tampa and Key West and performed several Italianactivists from New York City.
Itwas clear that in separatist movement question of the slavery wasboth complex and central. Historians disagreed on whether thismovement was abolitionist or proslavery. One group with BetancourtCisneros as its leader looked to diplomacy as well as highlycontrolled transfer of an island. The group operated a junta from1848 to 1855 in New York City, with financial aid from the Havanaseparatists. Essentially cautious men, separatists from New York wereuncomfortable with prospective social unrest mainly among free blacksand slaves.
Focusingon the municipality of Mayan highland, this reading reveal howconflict was understood from inside of rural communities affected.Divisions among them were completely deepened by conflict, and at thesame time army and government repression was experienced. Battle overthe cultural resources featured in confrontation while symbolicviolence was applied extensively to give pressure more powerfulimpact.
In1995 as an important part of a reorganization of festival villageleaders and military commissioners, who belong to the association ofmerchants initiated new dance referred to as dance of Nuevo convite.The following year this new dance was presented in Central Square ofmunicipality. During the dancing time, seventeen pairs of men tookpart wearing crowns, feathered headdresses, velvet capes, and patentleather gumboots.
Aspart of a regime of terror within municipality, women wereapprehended and raped by the members of an army, as well as by menwho were leaders of a village. In many places that were affected bywar, women were viewed as booty and also as temptation to trap men inmountains. Women were seen as objects of revenge by men, and rape wasused as the expression of victory and contempt.