Research Design




Inthe recent past, the field of neuromarketing has been evolvingrapidly, making the application of brain research in the context ofmanagement (Morin, 2011). Neuromarketing techniques have continued tobe employed in the determination of consumer decision-makingprocesses and preferences, and this is advantageous to both marketersand customers simultaneously. By exposing people to certain stimuli,it has been proven that the brain, on its own, is the primaryintermediary between human behavior, decision-making processes andexpressed emotions. However, the research design will help theresearcher to answer the research questions concerning theneuromarketing. Therefore, the purpose of this research design is toprovide clarification of human behavior in relation toneuromarketing.


  • What are the neuromarketing techniques that assist in changing consumer behaviour?

  • How does neuromarketing influence advertising, consumer purchasing behaviour, new product development, pricing, communication, decision-making, branding, and distribution of products?

  • To what extent are neuromarketing activities justifiable?


Mostsignificantly, the issues of neuromarketing is very important tosociety and companies because there is a deemed potential ofdiscovering automatic and implicit processes that can be employed indetermination of decision-making process revealing undisclosedinformation concerning consumer behavior that is not obtainable byconventional marketing techniques (Morin, 2011). Traditionally,advertisers and marketers made use of focus group marketing researchas a way of obtaining consumers’ responses regarding products andcommunication of brand in the market. Due the dynamic nature ofconsumer-driven marketplace, consumer reactions and opinions,marketers are now embracing new technologies that are enabling themto scientifically understand the minds of consumers.

Inour contemporary world, markets are full of many similar andequivalent produces. For this reason, there is need to differentiateand innovate products to satisfy customer needs. It has beenapproximated that around 80 percent of all new products are kickedout of market within the first three years of introduction, showingthe need for appropriate alignments between actual user requirementand newly developed products (Dapkevičius, &amp Melnikas, 2011).Thus, non-invasive brain-imaging methods of neuromarketing thatinclude psychophysiological tools such as skin conductance and eyetracking, and brain-imaging tools such EEG and fMRI, haveincreasingly gained popularity in the field of marketing.


Conceptualframework is significant in the research design as it defines theconcept used in the theoretical framework. Therefore, the traditionaldefinition of the term “marketing” is based on the propositionthat marketing is an activity that attempts to integrate people andproduct through analysis and understanding human behavior in thetrade market (Lee et al., 2007). However, the term “neuromarketing”exists in varied definitions depending the perspective of a givenfield study such as neuroeconomics, and neurosciences (Lee et al.,2007). Although neuromarketing exists in various definitions, it canbe defined as the utilization of neuroscientific techniques in theanalysis and understanding of human behaviour with respect tomarketing and markets exchanges. Additionally, neuromarketing can beviewed as a determination of “non-conscious” brain responses thatcan only be made a reality through neuro-imaging techniques. Whenthese techniques are effectively used, neuromarketing may haveinfluence on the pricing, advertising, distribution, and purchasingbehavior. According to Kenning et al. (2008), neuromarketing employsthe current technologies in brain scanning to understand oreconcerning the mental processes that influences consumer purchasingdecisions. Additionally, Ariely and Berns (2010) stated that certaindecisions displayed in advertisement can have immense impacts on theactual consumer decisions. Pricing is an essential factor since itaffects the consumer decision making processes because in theseprocesses, costs are always weighed against benefits. According toKotler &amp Keller (2006), neuromarketing techniques, for example,eye tracking, internal information and body language can haveinfluence on distribution of products.


Inorder to determine neuromarketing influence on the marketing inputtechniques, this paper systematically analyzes primary and secondarydata about to determine the extent to which neuromarketing affectsmain inputs of marketing. This study will employ EEG(Electroencephalography) which a neuromarketing technique as putacross by Vecchiato (2013). Therefore, data will be collected by twosets of equipment: EPOC EEG and eye-tracker system. The rationale ofusing EEG in this study is that it provides marketers withinformation that is not readily obtainable through traditionalmarketing research techniques such as interviews, focus groups, andquestionnaires. According to Khushaba (2013), this observation isbrought about by the fact that consumers cannot fully express theirpreferences explicitly. In this case, the effectiveness of variousmarketing strategies may be assessed by examining brain activity dueto consumers observing several products and advertisements. Thepurpose of EEG in this study is to capture human brain signal whichis then displayed in spectral Delta bands.

Inaddition, a qualitative methodology will be employed in the analysisof the data. Shiu et al. (2009) indicates that qualitative researchprovides preliminary insights of problem, clarifies it and createshypotheses. According to Baldry et al. (2002) qualitative research isa good psychological analysis and this makes it appropriate instudying neuromarketing because it involves mental processes.According Roth (2013), secondary data for neuromarketing can be foundthrough electronic search engines such as Scopus, Google Scholar andonline libraries. The data obtained from primary and secondary willbe analyzed to understand the influence of neuromarketing onadvertising, consumer purchasing behavior, new product development,pricing, communication, decision-making, branding, and distributionof products. These will be dependent variables, whereasneuromarketing was an independent variable.


Ariely,D., &amp Berns, G. S. (2010). Neuromarketing:the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(4), 284-292.

Baldry,D. et al. (2002. Quantitativeand qualitative research in the built environment: application of“mixed” research approach.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 51(1), 19-20.

Dapkevičius,A., &amp Melnikas, B. (2011). Influenceof price and quality to customer satisfaction: neuromarketingapproach.Science–Future of Lithuania/Mokslas–Lietuvos Ateitis, 1(3),17-20.

Kenning,P. H., &amp Plassmann, H. (2008). Howneuroscience can inform consumer research.Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on,16(6), 532-538.

Khushaba,R (2013). Consumer neuroscience: Assessing the brain response tomarketing stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye tracking.Retrieved from,on 24 Mar, 2015.

KotlerP., Keller K.L. (2006). MarketingManagement.Prentice-Hall International: New Jersey.

Lee,N., Broderick, A. J., &amp Chamberlain, L. (2007). Whatis ‗neuromarketing‘? A discussion and agenda for future research.International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63(2), 199-204.

Morin,C. (2011). Neuromarketing:the new science of consumer behavior.Society, 48(2), 131-135.

Roth,V. A. (2013). ThePotential of Neuromarketing as an Marketing Tool.Netherlands University of Twente. Retrieved from, on 17th Mar, 2015

Shiuet al. (2009). MarketingResearch.McGraw-Hill Higher Education European E.D, p.173, 449.

Vecchiato,G (2013). Neuroelectricalbrain imaging tools for the study of the efficacy of TV advertisingstimuli and their application to neuromarketing.Berlin: Springer.

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