Speech Pathology

SPEECH 6

SpeechPathology

Question1

Speechis theabilityto expressfeelingsandthoughtsby articulatesounds.In speechpathology,speechdenotesto three fundamentalaspects:phonological skills,voice,andspeechfluency.Morebroadly weare lookingat a person’sabilityto” Physically producingthedistinctsoundspatternsof a languagein question,creatingspeechwith aptrhythmandfreeof stuttering behaviorandcreatingspeechwith asuitablevocalquality.Humanbeingsexpressideas,thoughtsandfeelingsto one anothervia a patternof complexmovementsthatmoldandaltertheprimarytoneproducedby voiceinto particular,decodable sounds.In thisveinspeechdevelopmentis a continuingprocessthat requirestimeof practice((National Institute of Health, 2012). Whilespeechentailsthephysicalmotorabilityto talk,languageis a symbolic,rule-governedmechanismusedto conveya message.Thesesymbolscan be wordswrittenorspoken,gestures,In thisveinlanguageiscomposedof sociallysharedrulesthat encompassthefollowing:

  • The meaning of words

  • Making new words

  • Putting word together in the right pattern and

  • Word combination based on the prevailing circumstance

Someof thebasicrulesthat governa languageincludephonology,pragmatics, syntax,morphology andsemantics.Eventhoughspeechandlanguagearerelated,itis not mandatoryfora personto havespeechin orderto havea language.Aclassicalexampleis thesignlanguagethathas its ownrules,pragmaticandsyntax.In signlanguagepersoncan communicatewithout everutteringa word.Communicationis thecourseof actionof conveyinga messageto createa sharedunderstandingo otherpeople.Speechis usingto communicate,butevenwithout speechgestures,andpictorialsignscan be usedto conveymessages.Languageis theexpressionof humancommunicationvia which beliefs,knowledgeandbehaviorcan be explained,sharedandexperienced(National Institute of Health, 2012)

Question2

Observer’sParadox

Observer’sparadoxis a termed that wascoinedby Labov whostatedthatthesolegoalof linguisticresearchin thesocietyis to findout howpeopletalkwhennooneis systematicallyobservingyet,linguistscan onlyacquiredata by systematicobservation(Laroslav, 2013).Itis patternthat denotesthecomplexity of obtainingnaturalspeechfrom informantsin orderto investigatecontemporarypatternuse.Forexample,ifa fieldworker decidesto usean interviewwith nativespeakersandcarries onandposesquestionswhilerecordingresponses,theinformant,with fullknowledgethattheinformationtheygiveshall be analyzedandusedby linguist,is proneto altertheir speechto makeit‘’morecorrect’’andmaybeapplyhigherregister.Thissubsequentlyresultsto hypercorrection in thesphereof phonologyandretireawayfrom vernacularthat is justwhatthevariationist are endeavoringto study.Theparadox,therefore,liesin thefactthat,itis mandatorythatthere is a linguistwith a microphoneto gatherinformationandcapturespeech,yet thepresenceof thelinguistwith themicrophoneshall necessarilyprovokethe‘wrong’typeof speech.

Afieldworker can doa coupleof thingsto lessentheimpactof theobserver’sparadox.First,whenitis possible,theresearcher should be in a groupof acquaintancesorfriendsof theinformantto eliminatesomeof theawkwardnessandcreatea morenaturalenvironment.Second,is conductingan interviewto self-selected dyads. Dyadis a smallgroupof familymembersorindividualwhoare closeto eachother.Suchindividualsare lesslikelyto changetheir speech,based on thefactthattheyhavea priorestablishedmannerandwayof talkingto one another.Finally,thefieldworker can askquestions that spark an emotionalreactionfrom theinformantsothatheorshecan producenaturalspeech(Laroslav, 2013). Theassumptionhereis thattheinformantwill beovertakenby memoriesof an exceedinglytouchingtimein their life,andthereforelesskeenon thelanguagetheyuseandin thismannercircumventtheparadoxandgatherrightdata.

Question3

Unlikeotherpairedorgansof thehumanbodysuchlungs andkidneysthat performsimilarfunctions,brainhemisphereisasymmetrical. Therighthemisphereapartfrom havingtotalcontrolof theleftpartof thebodyalsocontrolsspatial acuity. On theotherside,thelefthemispherecontrolstherightsideof thebody,abstractreasoning,andlanguagecontrol.Basically,theseare their primaryfunctions

LeftBrain Hemisphere Right BrainHemisphere

Language Spatialabilities

Mathematics Facerecognition

Logic Visualimageryandmusic

Thelefthemisphereisconnectedwith verbalprocessing, suchas grammar,speech,andmathematics.Itprocessesinformationemanatingfrom theleftsideof thebody.Therighthemisphereis involvedmainlyin nonverbal processing suchas emotionandvisualrecognition.Lesions,especiallyof thetemporal-occipital-parietal convergenceon theright,educevariabledeficitsin tunelearningandproduction.Iftherightshemisphereis severelyinjureda personlosesspeechpower,asbutthemusicalabilityshall remainintactbecauseitis controlledbytherighthemisphere.

Theareasinvolvedin thecentralorganizationof languageandspeech,which is humanbeing’smostadvancedcapability,are aptly themostdevelopedneocortical zones.Itis not a wonderthatthehighestfunctionis localizedin themostadvancedpartsandevenmorethispartsutilizesoccupiesthegreatestexpanseifthecortex.

References

NationalInstitute of Health. (2012, June 7). WhatIs Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language?Retrieved February 21, 2015, from United States Department of Healthand Human Sciences:http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/pages/whatis_vsl.aspx

Laroslav,B. (2013, September 12). Observer’sparadox.Retrieved February 21, 2015, Linguistics:ttps://blogonlinguistics.wordpress.com/2013/09/12/observers-paradox/

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