The effects of Crossed Leg on Blood Pressure Measurement

Thearticle, TheEffects of Crossed Leg on Blood Pressure Measurement,was authored by Foster-Fitzpatrick et al. and published in theJournal of Nursing Research in 1999. It is a quantitative researchthat aimed at investigating the impact of crossed leg position on themeasurement of blood pressure. The current research article is aquasi-experimental design. The reason is that the researcher selecteda sample of 100 subjects and equally divided it into two in order tohave a comparison group. This was followed by the experiment wherebya variable (blood pressure) was compared between the two groups indifferent leg positions. The model used in the current article isfound on page 90 to 91 of the textbook (Polit &amp Beck, 2011).


Monitoringindividual’s blood pressure is among the key methods for diagnosingand treating an array of health issues. In particular, whileassessing hypertension, measuring blood pressure correctly isimportant. Errors should also be eradicated at all cost to ensurethat correct clinical decisions are made. The measurement of bloodpressure is influenced by different factors such as faulty equipment,medications, constrictive clothing, anxiety, and position of the bodyand arm among others (Foster-Fitzpatrick et al., 1999). Eliminatingerrors, as well as their probable causes is important consideringthat clinical decisions are made from a single measurement of bloodpressure. Researchers have provided different guidelines to ensurethat blood pressure is measured correctly. They include making surethat the feet are kept flat on the flooring during measurement.Nevertheless, there is shortage of research on the impact of legcrossing at the knee while measuring blood pressure. It is on thisbasis that the current research has been founded and performed.

Statementof Purpose

Thecurrent study aimed at determining whether crossing one’s leg atthe knee while measuring blood pressure has any impact on the resultreading.


Theresearch question being investigated in the current research articlewas:

  • Does crossing one’s leg at the knee while measuring blood pressure has any impact on the result reading?


Thestudy targeted male subjects aged between 31 and 81 years, and whohad hypertension. The participants were under antihypertensive drugs.The sample size was 100, which was chosen from different out-patientclinics in a veterans’ medical center (Foster-Fitzpatrick et al.,1999). The chosen sample was divided into groups of 50 subjects each.Two blood pressure measurements were conducted. During the firstmeasurement, the first group of participants was measured with theirfeet placed flat on the ground. The second group crossed their leg onthe knee during the initial measurement. The second measurementrequired the subjects to reverse their leg position. Out of the 100subjects, 16 were eliminated from the study since they never tooktheir drugs on the day of measurement (Foster-Fitzpatrick et al.,1999). Monitoring and recording of the blood pressure was performedby clinic nurses for the remaining 84 cases. The obtained informationwas subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA.


Thestudy results showed that both diastolic and systolic blood pressureamplified considerably while the subjects crossed their legs. Thesignificance level was p &lt.0001 (Foster-Fitzpatrick et al., 1999).Of the two, the modification in systolic blood pressure was moresignificant as compared to diastolic. The findings indicated thatdiastolic pressure modified by a rate of approximately 3.7 mmHg,reaching 83.95 mmHg from 80.24mmHg (Foster-Fitzpatrick et al., 1999).Putting these results into consideration, the general conclusion wasthat patients should always place their feet flat while bloodpressure level is being measured. The importance of this is theelimination of probable cause of error that may subject patients towrong clinical decisions.


Foster-Fitzpatrick,L., Ortiz, A., Sibilago, H., Marcantonio, R. &amp Braun, L.T.(1999). The Effects of Crossed Leg on Blood Pressure Measurement.NursRes.48(2):105-108.

Polit,D. F. &amp Beck, C. T. (2011). Nursingresearch: Generating and assessing evidence(9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.

The Experience of Black Fathers Concerning Support for TheirWives/Partners during Labor

Senganestudied the experience of black fathers concerning support for theirwives/partners during labour. The article was published in Curationisin 2009. The author employed an exploratory, qualitative anddescriptive study design related to clinical nursing. Sengane’swork is a qualitative research considering that no numerical data wasused. Besides, a small sample size of ten subjects was used in theresearch. The model summary utilized in the current research is foundon page 91 of the textbook (Polit &amp Beck, 2011).


Somefathers from the black society have been seen taking part during thebirth of their children. This has been enabled by the penetration ofcontemporary trends into their culture. However, for the currentstudy, the researcher recognized that just a few of them doparticipate. The majority of the fathers escort their wives up to theentry of the entry of the labour ward. According to the researcher,this move affects the health status of the entire family due to itsgeneration of stumbling blocks such as cultural factors and fear(Sengane, 2009).

Statementof Purpose

Thepurpose of the study was to illustrate what black fathers wentthrough while supporting their partners or wives during labour. Theintention was establishing guidelines aimed at encouraging fathers togive support during that time.


Theresearch objectives were met by answering two research questions.They included:

  • What experiences did black fathers go through while supporting their partners or wives during labour?

  • What measures can be put in place to promote black fathers towards supporting the wives during labour.


Thecurrent study employed a qualitative, descriptive and exploratoryresearch design. Besides, it made use of a phenomenological techniquerelevant to nursing research. It entailed the use of unstructuredinterviews carried out among a sample of ten fathers of blackculture. The researcher used a purposive sample that was divided intotwo groups. The first group comprised of fathers who offered supportto their partners or wives during labor. The second group comprisedof fathers who failed to offer support to their wives during labour.The research focused on various hospices in the Gauteng province. Theobtained data was analyzed through the employment of Kerlinger’smethod of con&shy tent analysis (Sengane, 2009). The analysis wasdone by the researcher together with a trained nursing coder.


Afterdata was collected and analyzed, it provided specific key findings.Firstly, the researcher recognized that the majority of fathers inthe first group went through various negative feelings. Theseincluded helplessness, nervousness, and anxiety (Sengane, 2009). Thiswas primarily caused by shortage of information regarding childbirth.On top of these negativities, the fathers also experienced positivefeelings which included great enjoyment and excitement. On the otherhand, the majority of fathers in the second group showed their desireand willingness to accompany their partners. For this group, variousstumbling blocks were identified including fear, shortage ofinformation, as well as other factors related to their culturalbackground.


Polit,D. F. &amp Beck, C. T. (2011). Resourcemanual for nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence fornursing practice(9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Sengane, M. L. (2009). The experience of black fathers concerning support fortheir wives/partners during labour. Curationis,32(1):67-73.

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