The Tension between Global and Local Architecture and How to Prevent the Loss of Local or Regional Identity That Pervasive International Trend Threatens The Case Study of Benghazi


The Tension between Global and Local Architecture and How to Preventthe Loss of Local or Regional Identity That Pervasive InternationalTrend Threatens: The Case Study of Benghazi

Institution Affiliation:


Globalization, historical developments, rapid suburbanization andtechnological developments have led to more standardization ofconstructed environments, robbing human habitats off cultural andregional or local identity, in which the inclination ofstandardization is becoming a global condition as the architectureand constructors apply the same construction designs, methods,materials, and styles. In fact, the new era is confronting thetension between the forces of local and global constructs throughglobalization, which has been extensively discussed as a distinctivetrend of the current moment, and its influence on local architecture.In addition, focus has revolved around globalization efforts toguarantee local identity and uniqueness through architecture, wherepeople perceive globalization as a multidimensional phenomenon. Inthis regards, the proposal will focus on the tension between globaland local architecture as well as the way through which globalizationand global trends have robbed human habitats of local and regionalidentity. Architectural designs and trends in Benghazi, Libya willexemplify the suggested tensions and provide a contextual assessmentof their influence on local identity.

Against the backdrop of increased global trends and globalization,an indispensable evaluation of architecture designs andstandardizations suffices. As such, the analysis of trends in urbanand architectural aspects of the Benghazi architecture will providethe required phenomena on tensions between local and global trends.The paper will define tension in the context of Benghazi City, moreso, with regards on Omer Mokhtar Street. The paper will look at thechanges that have occurred especially along the street and draws aparallel evaluation on influence of global and local architecture. Inaddition, the assessment on Omer Mokhtar Street will help definetension and offer a study aligned to changes occurring across theworld as global influences and local influences act in oppositedirection to define architectural designs and motifs. The paper willconstruct an analysis on how Benghazi City has undergone changes inOman, Arab, and Italian rules as well as how the WW11 and the 2011Revolution have led to the defining changes that one sees today. Thestudy will reveal that the Italian influence has offered the mostdefining and structured designs and motifs to Benghazi city as thepatrimonial buildings reveal. In fact, the Italian rule had a goodgrip on the architectural designs and motifs of the city than anyother rule. After the analysis of local and global tensions, thepaper will evaluate the architectural aspects that have occurred orchanged in Benghazi as a case study in the last millennia. Byfocusing on Benghazi as aforementioned, the paper will utilizelandscapes, site evaluations, journals, publications, site survey,maps, urban design, layout, and documentation of plans among otherparaphernalia to evaluate the tensions. As such, the research willaddress the question, The Tension between Global and LocalArchitecture and how to prevent the loss of local or regionalidentity that pervasive international trend threatens: The case studyof Benghazi.

Table of Contents

Abstract 2

The Tension between global and local architecture and how to prevent the loss of local or regional identity that pervasive international trend threatens: The case study of Benghazi 5


1.1 Introduction 5

1.1.1 Tension: Meaning in Relation to the Research Problem 5

1.1.2 Background 5

1.2 Context 7

1.3 Importance of the study 8

1.4 Scope and objectives of the study 10


2.1 General overview of Libyan Urban Cities: Note on Benghazi 12

2.2 Theoretical perspectives on urban city planning 15

2.3 The historical development of architecture in Benghazi 18

2.3.1 Influence on Benghazi architecture by Arab rule 18

2.3.2 Influence on Benghazi architecture by Ottoman rule 20

2.3.3 Historical Italian influence 22


3.1 Introduction 24

3.2 Research Plan and Design 25

3.3 Multiple Methods: Post-positivist and Representational 27

3.4 Sampling and Methods of Data Collection: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods 28

3.5 Instruments and Measurement: Methods of analysis and interpretation 29

3.6 Reliability and Validity 31

3.7 Limitations of the study 31


Bibliography 36

TheTension between global and local architecture and how to prevent theloss of local or regional identity that pervasive international trendthreatens: The case study of BenghaziCHAPTERONE: INTRODUCTION

    1. Introduction
      1. Tension: Meaning in Relation to the Research Problem

The paper defines tension in the context of changes in Benghazistructural and architectural designs and motifs as accelerated orinfluenced by global changes. In this regards, the paper definestension as strain or a scenario where two or more influencing forcesact in opposite to impact on the development or success of a place orcondition. In fact, the paper defines tension in Benghazi city as twocontrasting forces i.e. local and global that affect thearchitectural organization of a place. In Benghazi, the twocontrasting forces have acted in opposite direction invention of newmotifs and designs develops while desire to preserve the existingmotifs and designs increases. As such, tension, in this context,encompasses the flexibility, interchangeability, identity, designs,continuity, and preservation struggles that exist between global andlocal architecture in defining the direction of Benghazi City. OmerMokhtar Street will provide the most conclusive structure of how thetension between local and global influences has affected thearchitectural designs and motifs in Benghazi. The Omer Mokhtar Streetprovides the opening and strength of Italian architectural designsand motifs, but with the 2011 Revolution and increased global forces,the street has seen the development of new designs and motifs, whichsupport the existing tension. The Italian part with its doubleidentities and common model is being replaced by new plans andstructures aligned to international standardization and designs. Infact, the street has seen most of its patrimonial and architectonicmotifs being replaced by new and different structures, which reflectthe existence of the tension that the discourse offers.


Today, architecture is becoming progressively standardized,sanitized, and globalized as global standards, influences, and thephenomenon take place. In fact, two forces: local or regional forcesand global forces affect architecture as current structures aroundthe world demonstrate. Local influences incline to maintain andpropagate established Aboriginal architectural civilizations ortraditions, embellished motifs, procedures, and technologies. Localinfluences advocate historical continuousness or permanence,conservation of geographic identity and cultural diversity, allembodied in an exacting architectural vocabulary, just as articulatedlanguages and native parlances divulge identity (Rowland 2014Elkaseh et al. 2014a)). However, global influences promote discoveryand diffusion of new motifs and procedures using innovativetechnology and materials in the reaction to changing functional wantsand susceptibilities. As such, global influences place quality oncodification, tractability, and interchangeability. Against thebackdrop of the tension between local and global architecture, onenotes the opposing movements that have shaped the architecturalhistory.

Bettiza (2013) and Rennie-Short (2013) assert that pro-historicaldesigns and forms will likely rob people off local identities asthese designs advocate the use of architectural designs to symbolizestates, firms, corporate might, and product identification. In fact,the history of architecture demonstrates the progressively tensedifferential between local and global architecture appropriately. Forexample, early Romans established the original instance ofarchitecture hegemony, which allowed them to propagate theirprinciples and designs across the empire (Hayllar et al. 2008 Svarre2013 Adam 2008). However, Rome did not suppress local or indigenousarchitectural forms and practices, but instead developed Romanclassicism as the empire’s permeating architectural subject, onethat still demonstrates the popularity even today. On the other hand,the break of the 20th century saw many American, andEuropean architects rebel against classicism (Kamat 2014Rennie-Short 2013). The Americans and Europeans contended that thecontemporary age demanded new and innovative architecture in reactionto new developments in the industry such as mobility, technologies,and political and social orders. As such, the rebellion led to thedevelopment of the “International Style” based on codification,normalization, mass production, functional logic, economies of scale,and artistic alignment devoid of romanticism and enhancement. Today,the pressure to globalize architecture appears too strong especiallyfrom two fronts: culture of design and culture of commerce (Vines2013 Kamat 2014 Elkaseh et al. 2014)). As the proposal suggests,Benghazi has seen several transformations in terms of architecturalstyles from Arab to Ottoman and Italian influences. However, globalinfluences especially “Global Blanding,” historical developments,and the desire to utilize contemporary global architecture to definethe city have led to the loss of local identity expressly guaranteedin traditional architectural designs.


Rapid suburbanization, global trends, and technological developmentshave standardized architectural designs and motifs as aforementioned,which has deprived humanity social, regional, and local identity. Infact, architecture is turning an increasingly standardized systemwith global normalizations and influences with pro-global and GlobalBlanding aspects shaping its developments (Bettiza 2013). However,these developments or aspects have robbed people of cultural andregional or local identity as architects and constructors develop thesame construction designs, methods, materials, and styles

The strain between local and global forces in architectural strategyespecially with globalization and global standards taking root inmost constructions has allowed the indigenous motifs to degeneratewith the rise of new themes inclining toward corporate and productdevelopment (Bøås 2012 Langton and Longbottom 2012)). Globalforces tend to create diversity through their heterogeneous naturethus, they seek change and advocate discovery, unlike localinfluences that tend to preserve and propagate traditionalarchitectural designs. In addition, the pursuance of matrix dogmas inglobal influences proffers the need for a counteractive approach tothese forces. Chris (2006) and Bøås (2012) assert that the tensionbetween local and global forces in architectural design has occurredand advanced progressively with the forces interchanging betweenconserving established traditional architectural motifs andpropagating inventions and new technological architecture. As shown,globalization pursues heterogeneous forms and designs thus, itcreates disjointedness in sustainable development predominantly inspatial structures. In addition, Chris (2006) and Watson (2013)maintain that globalization permits communities to act in a matrix oflocal and global forces, opposition, and supremacy. As such, thesefeatures bring out the exploration inquiry in evaluating the impactof globalization on architectural culture of developing countries.During the early 20th century, designers perceived that,the contemporary age required innovative architectural approaches inreaction to new skills, productiveness, and flexibility in politicaland social orders.

1.3Importance of the study

Major cities across the world have witnessed great changes inarchitectural developments and designs as globalization progressesand the world engage in standardization procedures. As such, massiveingress of architectural designs has led to the attrition oftraditional architectural values. In fact, Chris (2006) and Langtonand Longbottom (2012) assert that cities haveforever partaken in noteworthy roles in individual development. Theyhave played roles in the Renaissance and evolution of people,provided edification, and performed as centers of business forcenturies. Hence, relentless need for cities to have effectivedesigns and plans. However, the influence of these designs and plansneed evaluation to avoid the erosion of local identity as thehistorical development of Benghazi city demonstrates. Shorn ofappropriate planning and legislation, people would live in chaosthus, planning and development act as the predominant aspects ofBenghazi future. The development of the city has seen major shiftswith Arab, Ottoman, and Italian influences, but it is the latter,which has afforded the city its master design (Rossi 2013). In fact,people see Benghazi city as having a traditional attachment to theItalian influences.

Countless cities in North Africa and Middle East countries havewitnessed major transformations in architectural designs due toenforced modernization and historical developments. Massive ingressof architectural language, motifs, plans, designs, and developmentsin these areas has seen the attrition of conventional architecturalvalues. For example, after the February 2011 insurgency in Libya, thecountry has witnessed great structural changes in the administrative,social and economic domains of Libya (Lloyd and Kenrick 2014).Profoundly, the country sees these changes as noteworthy in alteringthe structural and infrastructural facets and forms that exist.

Ancient modernists and international panache architecture predisposedthe architectural design in many Libyan urban cities greatly.Influences from the Arab and Ottoman empires demonstrate thisinfluence, although the country has realized other influences in itshistorical development (Vines 2013). On the other hand, the Italyinfluence, often associated with existing traditional architecturaldesigns and motifs demonstrate the development that has shaped citiesacross the country. The “Arab Spring revolutions” led to thedestruction of major architectural designs and buildings thus, thefocus on the facets of the reconstruction of urban cities willprovide the direction of architectural designs and forms in Benghazi.The reconstruction of the city and other major cities in Libyademonstrated the tension that occurs between local and global forces. In this instance, two forces predisposed the architectural designsadopted in the city the indigenous architectural design, motifs, anddecorative embellishments aligned to Italian designs, and the modernor technological innovations influenced by globalization andstandardized implements. The aboriginal architectural design demandscontinuousness of collective, historical and topographical identitypreservations of local architectural dialects while the high-techinventions or internationalized designs seek to surpass localconstrictions and conventions.

On the other hand, discussion of globalization impression hassubjugated the architectural domain with architects, planners, andthe public engaging in debate on the constructive and negativeeffects of globalization. In these considerations, some associateglobalization, with neo-colonialism categorized by the expedition forprofession, stimulating artistic, social, and cultural supremacywhile others perceive globalisation as a multidimensional singularitybringing in innovative prospects and tasks.

Underlying these influences is the panic of local and regionaldistinctiveness loss from the evolving architectural inscription,which is intercontinental. This imprint has resulted in the strainbetween the local and global architectural schemes in terms ofsustainability and energy efficiency outlines (Rennie-Short 2013Kamat 2014). In fact, several researchers and architects are ofquintessence that the green design of architecture controvertsglobalization values. However, these architects and researchers failin realizing that international standards aligned to architecturaldesigns do not necessarily mean continuity. Therefore, the thesispursues the assessment of globalization and its influences on localarchitectural values with particular concern in Benghazi City.

1.4Scope and objectives of the study

The study will focus on Benghazi city, Libya, here referred as thecase study. The study does not limit itself to one tiny, significantfactor behind the tension between local and global architecture, butchooses a broad approach to the historical developments ofarchitecture in Benghazi. In fact, the study employs a widerdefinition of planning, analysis, documentation, planning, andarchitectural developments to establish the loss of local identityprogressed by global influences. The planning and city designs ofBenghazi will help demonstrate this loss of identity, as well asform, a significant part of the paper. As such, the paper will studythe historical and city compact developments that Benghazi city haswitnessed and the intensification of major architectural designs orforms. However, the study will employ multiple methods ingrainedaligned to primary sources of data collection to demonstrate thephysical, social, and cultural motifs that have shaped architecturein the city.

In the light of suggested instances and descriptions, the thesis willexplore the effects of local and global influences on constructionarchitecture of Benghazi City and its surrounding. Precisely, thestudy will attempt to scrutinize globalization process and itsinfluence on architectural proposals, designs, and intentions, aswell as the probable positive and negative impacts. In addition, thethesis study pursues to consider the synchronicity of local andinternational forces in the expansion of architectural designs forbuilt environment in the city and its surrounding, more so, withfocus on historical developments and architectural phases that thecity has witnessed. In fact, the paper will appraise the futurecourse of globalization trend in architecture and approaches tomanaging deleterious impacts of the suggested tensions in line withrefining the living conditions of the locals. As such, the proposalwill inform on the new and existing practices of architecture duringthe transformation and restoration phase in Libya after the February2011 revolution. Knowledge gained in this area may be useful forlocal architects and the State, in general. Therefore, the paper willpursue the following objectives

  • The local and global influences on the architecture or urban design of Benghazi city

  • How will the local and global influences or tensions on architecture impact on the quality of the humanity’s living environment in Benghazi

  • To give recommendations on the means through certain forces might counteract or mitigate the suggested tensions to help maintain the valued aspects of the current constructed environment of Benghazi

  • To understand the correlation between architecture developments, intensification, historical developments, and city developments and sustainability

  • To understand the architectural developments, designs, and plans of Benghazi city


2.1General overview of Libyan Urban Cities: Note on Benghazi

Despite the proliferation of many urban plans and architecture inLibya, there has been little research, documentation, analysis andcriticism about the issue. Few researchers from Libya and Italy havetouched on the subject, and this could be attributed to the closedgovernment Libya has had for over 40 years that hindered anysignificant theoretical and academic search on the subject ofarchitecture (Lloyd and Kenrick 2014 Rossi 2013 Richmond 2012). Inthe recent years, there have been great developmental projectsimported into North African countries in complete disregard of thephysical and local ideologies. As a result, many cities are losingtheir local image, ability to meet local needs and uniqueness. Thesecities have experienced changes in cultural architecture with localindigenous architecture being replaced by foreign designs. Thesechanges are due to attempts to free from the past by adoptinginternational social aspects without prior consideration of changesin the society. The resultant effect has been conflict on thearchitectural sphere, with some chasing international architecturalframeworks, attempting recovery of traditional architecture andothers trying to merge traditional architecture with modern methods.

However, all of these are in the quest to develop local architecturedespite their contradicting methods. In this case, survivingindigenous values provide bonds among the societies while the otherinstitutions adopted contradict the vernacular architecture. Peoplefeel comfortable and part of the environment that reflects their owncultural values and identity. Changing globalization has eroded thefabric of local architecture. This has left the local architecturewith no option but to grapple with the dilemma of assimilatingglobalization with indigenous heritage. Due to forced modernisation,there has been tension between imported values and traditional ones(Kamat 2014). This is highlighted through the insensitivity directedat international architects, planners and contractors who areundertaking major architectural projects in Benghazi and Libya ingeneral. Adapting to new technology and foreign architecturaldesigns, while at the same time maintaining local identity, is theresearch problem.

The ancient Greeks founded Benghazi city in 525 BC, but its name hasroots from the Italian colonial period (Rossi 2013). Under OttomanEmpire, the city was an important location for merchant trade. Duringthe Italian rule, many buildings, railway and sea walk wereconstructed (Rossi 2013 Vines 2013 Richmond 2012). The city wasassociated with royal families and held National institutions. Manyhistorical architectural buildings did not survive World War II andtherefore, the city was reconstructed after years of heavy bombingsduring the World War II. Rossi (2013) asserts that the 2011revolution, which began in Benghazi, was the hallmark of the city’scurrent episodes. Benghazi city center possesses astrong visual entity in which water stretches and built spacemaintain a special relationship.

The city Centre displays several different visualsequences through its buildings’ typology, the urban structure andtheir interface with natural elements such as lagoons, lakes andSabkhas (Watson 2013). Benghazi is a port city. For this reason, itsidentity is strengthened by the current port location linked with theold city. Another character is reflected by the presence of hugeurban voids due to the embankments of Sid hassine Sabkhas during theItalian period (Vines 2013 Cook and Lara 2013). The CityCentre is characterized by several roads, expressways andinterchanges which occupy a large area. This infrastructure developsthe city’s visual image. Walls and gates do notsurround the old city of Benghazi. Therefore, it cannot be defined bylimits but rather by its dense fabric. For this reason, it ischaracterized by its unique urban and roads structure. The old citycovers an area of about 160 hectares, according to the perimeterestablished by the old city authority, UPA, in 2010 (Vines 2013).

Benghazi old city overlooking the sea and itsurban fabric is perpendicularly organized on the maritime front(Rossi 2013). The cool sea breeze serves the city roads. Lloyd andkenrick (2014) maintain that the opening of the Italians, which isthe current of Omer Mokhtar Street parallel to the seafront, hasrestructured the whole medina. The Italian part is organizedaccording to a common model offering a double identity to the oldcity with the arcades system on the ground floor and shops. The builtfabric is now very degraded. Majority of the valuable buildings arein ruins whereas most of them have been demolished in favor of modernand bad quality buildings, which are of less quality andsignificance. Half of the buildings are now in good condition, whilemany patrimonial and architectonic elements have been replaced.Hence, a plan to safeguard the existing architecture is as urgent asit is important. This heritage is currently not highlighted facadesare old and not rehabilitated. Vines (2013) contends that it isproblematic to distinguish the constructed heritage as the newbuildings are reshaping the street skyline. Therefore, understandingthe modern architectural model is quite challenging. There is a greateclecticism between the different building as well as questionableinterpretations, such as publicity posters and political paintings.In addition, Benghazi enjoys a privileged access to the sea (Vines2013). It follows a long dunes cordon along a stretch of severalkilometers. The coastline is oriented toward the west, which gives ita particular landscape force. Benghazi cornice is an importantelement to shed light on the city and to develop sportive andrecreation activities.

2.2Theoretical perspectives on urban city planning

Writing about urban design, Svarre (2013) observes that citiesrevolutionize depending on the way people perceive urban life.Because of growing population in urban cities, Svarre argues thaturban cities could be transformed into places of happiness byimproving on the design, such as constructing modern sidewalks,subways and developing towers. Urban cities could be transformed intohappy cities with low carbon footprints, which needs both thetraditional and modern architectural concepts to design. In general,the manner in which cities are planned develops identity link withpeople and alters the way they feel, behave and think.

According to Hayllar et al. (2008), in their book‘City spaces-Tourist places,’they theorized that, urban cities should be designed in ways thatallow for recreation spaces. In their study of city life and touristplaces, they found that tourism in the city was enhanced more throughcreating leisure resources that made the city life livelier. Inhis work, ‘How to study public life,’Svarre (2013) concluded that there is moreto designing urban cities than meets the eye. In many developing anddeveloped countries, cities are densely populated, leading todiminishing resources such as adequate public space. Hayllar et al(2008) argue that life in the city could be made more habitablethrough effective city planning that considers adequate publicinfrastructure. In addition, they recognized that improvement in citydesigns could be possible with planners studying city life tounderstand the importance of public space. It is throughunderstanding of city life (human behaviours) that city plannerscould design structures that have urban elements. Their assumptionwas that, knowledge of urban life could aid in decision-making andoverall planning of streets, parks and other public spaces.

Therefore, city planners should analyse elementsthat make excellent streets by focussing on how to shape publicspaces, correct building heights and ration the street sizes. Intheir argument, the architects observed that making great streetsenhances city life, and that people feel more comfortable, safe andexcited by the neighbourhoods (Alan et al. 2014).Broughton et al. (2013) assert that modern cities should be renovatedto accommodate growing urban populations, ensure sustainability,efficiency and serene environments. Without transformation, moderncities are bound to face dire consequences such as pollution,overcrowding crime and social fragmentation. Hayllar (2008) andDakhil (2013) contend that, in the modern world, technology and humansettlements are inseparable, and as such, urban planning and designof cities needs to incorporate these aspects. This implies that theurban environment should be combined with infrastructuralarchitecture to address day to day social, economic and environmentalproblems (Hayllar et al. 2008).

Another scholar observed that technological boomdid not come to kill cities but to flourish them. According to Svarre(2013), cities should be designed in such a way that they are lively,safe healthy and sustainable places. He further added that urbanlandscape should be designed to capture the five human senses, andthe cities should be designed to make them lively, reduce crime,create public spaces and reduce overcrowding. According to Svarre(2013), city planning should allow for sustainability, diversity,open spaces, incentive, adaptability, density and identity. Cityplanning should be organized to allow for sensible and sustainableresources use. He further adds that, ‘citiesneed to reinvent themselves, define alternative future withoutdisrespecting the past.’ Without goodplanning cities could be areas of pollution, overcrowding and wastedumping. Visionary cities should have manifestos that demand forcollective rather than individual designing of all aspects ofmetropolitan life. In his book, ‘vertical village’, Svarre(2013) argues that cities should be transformed into some kinds of‘Urban Villages,’ which should foster a connected community,instead of isolating citizens through tower blocks.

Architecture has since the past shaped everyplace’s identity. However, interaction with the outside worldcannot be ruled out, and it is on record that such interaction maylead to tension between local and external architecture (Bennett andBarkev 2011). In the modern day world, cities are continually growingand expanding at the pace of international standards. There exists avibrant line of separation between the indigenous design and planningof a particular city and external influence. With a world that has agrowingly pervasive architectural taste indigenous architecturalidentity may be at risk (Foulconbridge 2009 Elkaseh et al. 2014b)).The separation between the original and external designs begins withthe occupation of a place by foreigners. This affects the manner inwhich buildings are set up, how each is designed for a particularpurpose and the public space that is set aside for various purposes.However, Faulconbridge (2009) says that this has led to conceptualand structural chaos urban architecture. While the new occupants wantto bring in their own designs, the existing designs are compromised.The old and new styles cause a conflict of interest in the designingof cities and other urban places. As the guests introduce their owndesigns, there is tension in the society which affects the generaloutlook of the urban places.

Every architectural regime’s urban designerstend to create a unique taste, which is guided by the principles oftheir architectural themes (Prudon 2008 Elkaseh et al. 2014b). Thereare a number of civilizations whose architecture is identifiable by acertain characteristics. These are highlighted either by the shape,size or style of building. The manner in which these architectsdesign their buildings determines the general direction of urbanityon a certain place. Different architectural designers have differenttastes for the utilization of urban spaces. This in turn determinesthe general outlook of the urban places. For instance, the Arabicpeople’s design has a tendency of leaving huge open spaces fortranquility reasons while the European designs dedicate open spacesto administrative and public purposes.

2.3 The historical development of architecturein Benghazi

The City of Benghazi boasts a mixture of traditional and modernarchitectural styles that shape its image and terrain. Throughouthistory, the city’s architecture has been influenced by variouscultures such as the Arab, Ottoman, and Italian cultures. These haveinfluenced the streetscapes, building, and public places in the city.Additionally, there are remnants of Greek and Roman architecturaldesigns that complement the city’s general landscape.

2.3.1Influence on Benghazi architecture by Arab rule

The Arabic culture influenced much of the Northern Africa countries’architecture (Herrle and Schmitz 2009). This is so because the Arabicculture was in the seventh to the thirteenth centuries an influentialcosmopolitan civilization. Rapid expansion of Islam in the NorthernAfrican countries in the past facilitated the settlement of the Arabsin Libya’s urban centers, such as Benghazi. With excellent skillsin astronomy and mathematics, the concept of the Arabic architecturewas to glorify Islam faith. Thus, the architects devoted their designand construction skills to primarily building mosques and mausoleums,which are important Islamic worshiping places. By 1159, the Almohadshad conquered the entire North Africa coast, going as far east asBenghazi (Wright 2012). While at it, they began introducingarchitectural designs that were later used to build some of the mostprolific buildings that have stood the test of time.

In the City of Benghazi, the traditional Islamic architectureencompasses a number of secular and religious styles, which havestood strong up to the modern day (Wright 2012). The concepts ofIslamic architecture in most urban centers in Northern Africa,including Benghazi, was influenced by ancient structures that alreadyexisted in countries such as Persia and Egypt. These were places thathad been conquered earlier by the Arabians.

McLaren (2006) says that Benghazi is still shaped by samples of themany forms of Islamic architecture, which have evolved over time.Most notable of these forms are Abbasid buildings and central-domemosques. The Abbasid architecture continued to be copied in mostNorthern African cities up to the recent centuries. Most of thesebuildings were financed by the rich trade that took place in andaround the city. In the early periods of Arabic conquering, Arab-planmosques were the first to be set up. These mosques’ architecturaldesign traces its roots back to the Umayyad Dynasty (Wright 2012).They were either square or rectangular in shape, and were enclosedwithin a court yard. Given the city’s hot Mediterranean climate,large prayer halls, and court yards were used to accommodate bignumbers on prayer days. One of the most notable mosques in Benghaziis the Attic Mosque (Wright 2012). Standing at the Freedom Square, orMayan Al-Huriya, the mosque was founded in 1400.

In Benghazi, the free spaces are designed with the concepts ofIslamic architecture. Demissie (2012) says that the Quran uses theconcepts of the garden are equivalence for the heavenly paradise, theultimate price of faith and service in Allah. This concept was usedin most of the Northern Africa cities. The residents used most ofthese gardens as places of resting and reflection. In the modern dayBenghazi, a lot of urban space has been set aside for these gardens.Famous gardens are themed with flowers, shades, and gardens, whichadd beauty to the natural environment.

However, Edwards (2006) says that the simplicity of the Arabarchitectural designs is one of the reasons that most of theirbuildings gradually get destroyed. In Benghazi, a number of the oncepopular Islamic mosques have been destroyed due to negligence andharsh climatic conditions. In the modern times, Arabic architecturein Benghazi combines modern skyscrapers and traditional open airmarkets (Edwards 2006). All these are found next to modern buildingssuch as western-themed malls and social buildings.

2.3.2Influence on Benghazi architecture by Ottoman rule

The Ottoman culture was founded in the early fourteenth century. Theyorganized themselves into being a significant civilization because ofthe disintegration of the Seljuq Sultanate in Anatolia (Mecit2013). All through the dawn of 15th and 16theras, the Ottoman people occupied Benghazi, a then developing urbancentre. It was through this era that the Ottoman people influencedthe city’s architecture through unique artistic designs. Thebuilders incorporated signature elements such as hemispherical domesand enclosed courts, which were characteristically unique with theOttoman architecture. The Ottoman’s architecture during theformative period was primarily based on stone. The Ottomanarchitecture was recognized for the highly professional and qualitymasonry, which sometimes used a combination of brick and stone (Hoag2012). This characterized the City of Benghazi’s buildings duringthe Ottoman rule.

The grand tradition of Ottoman architecture was established in the15th century in Northern African cities. In Benghazi,Ottoman architecture was used to one of the most complex buildingsthat grace the city’s landscape up to date. The concepts of thedesign were used to put up special houses, known as tekkes,which were constructed to accommodate houses of the notable residents(Freely 2011). These buildings were often joined with a mosque ormausoleum. In the city, these buildings could be seen from far asdomed, central-plan structures that stood majestically above otherstructures.

A’goston and Masters (2009) say that the Ottoman architecturetraces its roots back to Bursa in the 15th century.It was developed by concepts from Iranian architectures. For overfour centuries, the Ottoman architecture was synthesized witharchitectural traditions from the Northern Africa region. Given thatthis architecture was widely recognized in the Mediterranean and theMiddle East, it received widespread recognition in the neighbouringareas. According to Kuban (2010) one of the distinguishing factors ofthe ancient Ottoman architecture was uniquely mastered interiors withspaces confining weightless but huge domes. The motive was to achieveperfect synchronization of the inner and outer spaces. Additionally,the Ottoman architecture gave priority to lighting and reflection.Just as the Arabic architecture, the Ottoman architectural designswere used to build mosques. In Benghazi, remnants of Ottomanarchitecture are a reminder of the city’s rich history.

In Benghazi, while the ancient Ottoman styled mosques were the mostcharacteristic monuments of the Ottoman architecture, secularbuildings were also built. These buildings occupied fair percentageof the city’s space, and greatly influenced its general cityplanning. Presently, the largest piece of Ottoman architecture is theOttoman palace in El Berka (Hole et al. 2007). Currently, thestructure stands as one of the greatest Ottoman era structures thathave not been destroyed by nature or humans. The cenotaph was erectedunder the rule of one of the most famous leaders of the city by then,Rashid Pasha the Second (Petersen, 2002). Later on, the city’sresidential buildings were characterized with several balconies andspacious courtyards. Fountains were signature additions to thesebuildings. Over time, the character of Ottoman architecture inBenghazi has undergone numerous changes, most influenced by thewestern designs.

2.3.3Historical Italian influence

The Italians have a very broad and wellestablished style of building and construction, which makes theirstructures to have an influential impact on places they have occupied(Dan 2013). In Benghazi, the Italians built buildings that werealmost as similar to those in Europe, especially Italy. The Italianarchitectural era began with the Italian occupation of Libya in 1911(Dan 2013). Caprese (2012) says that this architectural period can bedivided into two stages. The first stage is during 1911 to 1928,which was greatly characterized by Mediterranean architecture. Duringthis period, the Italian architects combined elements of localarchitecture. They most concentrated in residential buildings.However, Bernhard (2012) says that some of the most magnificentItalian design buildings that stand up to date are commercial andpublic buildings, such as churches and public halls. The Italianshowever did not completely do away with the elements of otheroccupants’ architectural designs. According to Cohen (2014), theyused assets such as vaults, bricks and domes, which were attributedto the Ottoman. The Italian occupation’s second architectural stagewas distinguished with the uprising of fascism in Italy (Cohen 2014).According to Elkekli (2014), this was highlighted by building whichcarried political messages, such as symbols and signs that supportedand spread Fascist propaganda.

According to Raza (2013), the Italians were notconcerned about the social, economic and physical wellbeing of theLibyans. They settled in the best lands in Italy, while the Libyanswere pushed off to remote area. Therefore, during this period, theItalians constructed buildings that served their purpose. Accordingto Castillo (2011), one of the largest impacts on Beghanzi landscapeby Italian architecture was religious buildings. Italians areCatholic believers, while a majority of the Libyans are Muslimbelievers. Therefore, no tangible effort was made to preserve theexisting mosques or put up new one. This influenced the modernplanning of the city. One of the most prolific Italian buildings wasthe neo-classical Benghazi cathedral (Troll and Hewer (2012). Theminster, which was planned and constructed by Italian designers,overlooks the Mediterranean Sea. The building had the look of a RomanCatholic Basilica.

Between 1952 and 1969, the royal government ofLibya cemented its presence in several areas, including urban designand architecture (Caprese 2012). The era was distinguished byeconomic vulnerability and few resources which were to be dedicatedto infrastructure and development. This meant that the locals had tobe pushed to modest dwellings which were put up using simplearchitecture (Caprese 2012). However, there was a resoundingexception for government buildings. More attention and resources werededicated to ensure that the government buildings were constructedwith modernized architecture, however with Italian themes.


This research will explore how the tension between local and globalinfluences robs people off local and regional identity. The studywill employ multi-faceted approaches hinged on primary sources ofinformation gathering and aligned to site surveys. A theoreticalframework based grounded on a body of literature will form the mainpart of the research. The framework will define and exemplify theresearch problem and objectives as well as seek interrelationshighlighted in background structures. The study gives a comprehensivedescription of the strains between local and global influences aswell proffers a contextual framework for the counteractive measuresand development instances. After setting the connotations ofarchitectural designs and motifs employed or gauged, the paperprovide an evaluation of correlation instances and embark on theprovision of a distinctive methodology and research design thatdemonstrates the highlighted aspects in the theoretical frameworkeffectively. In the theoretical framework, the study generatesinformation by the literature review from publications, libraryresearch, article journals, critiques, architecture magazines ornewspapers, and previous research reports.

On the other hand, the case study of Benghazi forms one of the mostsignificant parts of the research as it offers support for theresearch problem and objectives. The paper provides a historicalsynopsis of planning in Benghazi city and explains ways through whichthe city has witnessed global effects on architectural designs andforms. Like in the theoretical framework, the paper draws on thesupport of academic literature and secondary sources such as researchreports, academic reports, and policy documents. However, the casestudy will involve the utilization of in-depth site survey, maps,architectural evaluations on designs and plans, documentation ofplans, layout, site analysis, landscaping, exhibits, and built forms.The study will finally engage in the evaluation of the underscoredaspects through (MCA), a multi-criteria analysis by assessing thecase study on its historical development and current situation.

3.2Research Plan and Design

Methodologydenotes the systematic and conjectural valuation of the methods thatone administer to a field of study to recognize the purposes andstandards of the study. As such, a methodology encompasses theestablished set of styles, guidelines, and assumptions substantial toapprehend intentions and generate inclusive implications. Explanatory Research Design aligned to a case study and supported bymultiple methods will help examine the research problems andobjectives. One needs to understand the impact of globalisation onlocal architecture better thus, the exploration of the researchproblem through a case study. In fact, Azlitni (2009) contends that acase study provides the best mode of inquiry from an architecturalviewpoint since it allows a researcher to undertake a site survey aswell as develop a theoretical framework. Yang and Li (2013), Case andLight (2011) and Haider (2013) maintain that a case study allows aresearcher to collect multiple data and analysis. A number ofresearchers have used case studies to make generalities or purelysubjective information about studies and projects tangible orsubstantial. In fact, Yang and Li (2013) assert that case studiesbring to light archetypal processes and concepts worthy ofreproduction or broader dissemination. To discover the influence ofglobalisation on architectural culture of Benghazi, a case studyapproach would ensure that, detailed, in-depth and real life data iscollected. In particular, use of multiple methods would help assessthe perspective presented by the hypothesis in a holistic way. Thesetting reviews are appropriate for this study data will becollected through qualitative in-depth interviews, reviewing archivedocuments, taking pictures and through observation.

Theincorporation of multiple methods of data collection and analysiswill ensure that the objective, detailed and clear data is sourced inorder to bring out the picture of tension between local and globalforces on architectural designs. A full case study on Benghazi willencompass site analysis, date of designs and planning, location offorms, site plans, program elements, development processes, projecthistory and developments, management and maintenance, photographs,generalizable aspects, and archival research. As Yang and Li (2013)and Silverman (2013) observe, the case study will encompass siteanalysis, site visit, design process analysis, historical analysis,and behavioural analysis, interviews with developers, architects,locals, and designers, bibliographic searches, and archival materialsearches. The context part of the research will show the significanceof the city in studying the research problem as well as construe acontextual framework that will help in assessing the study’sobjectives. On the other hand, site analysis will provide anassessment on Benghazi city including its location, views, majorhighlights, visual edges, landscape architecture, designs, anddetailed sketches. Site analysis will provide the most comprehensiveassessment on the development of architectural designs and motifsthus, help show how global influences have strained local identities.Furthermore, as Yang and Li (2013) assert, site analysis will providea remarkable situation on the current designs and forms thus, helpto compare with designs and forms described in the background andhistorical analysis.

3.3 Multiple Methods: Post-positivist and Representational

Groat and Wang (2001) maintain that architecture does not belong toscience, but belongs to arts umpired by a concept of establishedpositivist knowledge emphasizing impartiality, external and internalvalidity. In this regards, Groat and Wang (2001) observe thatdeveloping a positivist perception of science to architectural studywould be an exceptionally demanding position to uphold. Instead, anarchitecture’s notion of research should shift towards a generalimpression of information rather than models. However, Rowland(2014), Hegemann and Peets (2014), Brophy and Lewis (2011), Campbell(2013), and Newman and Vassigh (2014) contend that, according to theinformation provided by the Vitruvius, architects require amultidisciplinary comprehension of science and models. As such, andgoing by Groat and Wang’s description of architectural researchparadigms, then it is overly essential to broaden the research beyondthe simplistic tendencies of demonstrating the research asqualitative or quantitative. In fact, Rowland (2014) and Campbell(2013) assert that these contradictions i.e. dividing research intoqualitative or quantitative make a research simplistic and lacking inquality. Furthermore, architectural study relates to flankingdisciplines in which diverse standards demonstrate dominance thus, aresearcher needs to integrate different research designs, knowledge,and methodology. According to Brophy and Lewis (2014), Campbell(2013), and Rowland (2014), an architectural research requires takinga paradigmatic stance that aligns to facts and models.

Based on Rowland (2014), and Groat and Wang (2001) descriptions ofarchitectural studies, the paper suggests a methodological design andmethodology that draws on the contribution of social sciences andarchitecture. In this regards, the research will assimilate knowledgefrom post-positivist and representational. Each of the mentionedstructure contains diverse epistemological and ontologicalexpectations and cultivate different criteria in umpiring researchvalidity and quality thus, the utilization of the threemethodologies will proffer a quality research. The post-positivistdesign will involve the construction of information throughindependent observation. Groat and Wang (2001) call this methodologya methodological predilection for tentative research where one canmeasure and quantify results. Reliability, validity, and objectivitywill demonstrate the success of the methodology in assessing theresearch problem and objectives. On the other hand, therepresentational methodology will construct information in social andnumerous realities. Brophy and Lewis (2011) observe that the methoddoes not depend on objectivity but emphasizes on comprehensiveportrayals that gives reliability and confirmability to researchassumptions. The method uses a combination of quantitative andqualitative methods to gauge the research assumptions. However,rather than disprove premises, the method describe complexities of aresearch dilemma thus, this method will provide an appropriateassessment for site analysis and surveys.

3.4Sampling and Methodsof Data Collection: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

The study will undertake amulti method that will encompass articulating implications anddefinite methods resulting from the blend of qualitative andquantitative information gathering and examination methods. Amulti-method approach will permit methodologies that are moreflexible in alluring contribution regarding unrestrained alignments(Creswell, 2014). The approach will employ qualitative andquantitative methods but take information collections as two detacheddata provisions scrutinized symptomatically over quantitative andqualitative approaches. In Quantitative examination, data collectiontakes on numerous forms such as cluster and distinct interviews,consideration of the existing literature, and interviews. In thisregards, apart from case study and ethnography, the paper willundertake surveys, interviews, and questionnaires to collectinformation.

Inthis case, in-depth data will be collected in local and foreignarchitectural designs through site observation and extensive reviewof historical architectural documents in the archives. In order tocollect this data, the research will involve a visit to the city ofBenghazi to observe the architectural landscape of the city, thenvisit the Libyan Library archive to review architectural documents,and prepare open structured work shop for gathering in-depth detailsabout local people perception of the impact of foreign architecturaldesigns in their locality. The use of multiple methods of datacollection enhances validity of facts by eliminating investigator`sbias. AsYin (2009) and Campbell (2013) assert the sample size used in theresearch, will depend on suitability, period, price, and theperceptions of the examiner. To undertake a balanced research bearingin mind that theoretical framework and site surveys and analysis willform a big chunk of the study, the research will use a sample size of30 participants as aforementioned. The research has considered thesuggested sample size as sufficient to proffer valuable and correctdata. Surveys, questionnaires, and interviews will form part of theresearch.

Inaddition, I will explore online architectural photos of Benghazicity, compare past and present view of buildings, streets, and opengardens. Data collection is determined by the subject matterobservation of architectural drawings and photos and analyzingavailable documents in the case under study (Soy,2003).

3.5 Instruments and Measurement: Methods ofanalysis and interpretation

Thestudy will utilize ordinal measures of researchplaced at intervals to circumvent thoughtful information. Theinsinuation of the information or measurements composed will form theparamount examination of the survey, which will then integrate theutilization of multi-criteriaanalysisand correlation evaluations. Yin (2009), Groat and Wang (2001), Pettyet al. (2012), and McNabb(2013) affirm that thedisciplined conjectural approach suggests creating viewpoints withwhich investigators can elucidate shared actions, measures, andreactions. As such, the research will conform to the disciplinePhilosophical Doctrine that is post-positivism supported byrepresentational methodology. In fact, Rowland (2014), Campbell(2013), and Yin (2009) suggest that post-positivism underscores apossibility that a scientist can make clarifications on socialpropensities to understand required knowledge. It integrates ashared and physical practicality independent of the researcher,include methodical cognizance in the avowed accuracy, and communicatemethodical reviews based on accurate epistemology.

Analysisof data will be done through qualitative and interpretive analysis ofrecorded information and seen structural details in the case studies.Data collected through in-depth interviews will be qualitativelyanalysed against literature review to verify local people feelingsabout the impact of globalisation on the locality. Facts obtainedthrough site observations will be compared with historical photos,videos in the archives to draw a comparison of architectural changes.Qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews will be analysedin relation to theoretical facts gathered in the literature review.

Inorder to enhance deep understanding of the details, close analyses ofdocumentary evidence will be taken as well as photos. The use ofmultiple methods of data collection ensures that there is internalvalidity of data collected to limit observer’s bias measuring whatone wants to see and not what is there. This method of researchensures that the researcher is not limited to any methodologicaltool, there is holistic detailed investigation, and that data can becollected over the period place and time convenience.

The thesis will conclude with a visual art content in order todemonstrate and advocate how we can prevent the loss of local orregional identity that is threatened by an emerging imprint of globaland international aspect.

3.6 Reliability and Validity

Reliability denotes the level at which outcomes become dependableover time, and an exact description occurs of the complete research’sdesign, structure, or layout. For example, if the results obtainedbecome similar to the same approach, then the research mechanismbecomes consistent. The research will use a test-retest method toascertain the reliability of the research. In addition, thetest-retest approach will define the stability of the study advancesfrom the inception of statistics collection.

Validity will help establish whether the research will evaluate therequired information. Accordingly, validity will guarantee thefulfilment of the intention of the research. The construction of thevalidity approach will ascertain the effective identification of thepreliminary notion, question, hypothesis, or notion. This constructwas critical in making sure that the data gathered, as well as themethodologies utilized collecting data, assessing layouts and samplesproject high value to the research.

3.7Limitations of the study

The use of a case study aligned to landscape architecture, sitesurveys, layouts, and maps will provide comprehensive information onthe research problem. However, Caseand Light (2011) and Dixon (2012) assert that case studies profferthe best means of disseminating information across various fields,but unfortunately numerous difficulties plaque case studies. Yang andLi (2013) contend that case studies require a lot of time and energyin most instances, they prove costly especially if one decides tovisit an actual site. The research will involve some visits to have agood glimpse of Benghazi city since conducting a case study of such amagnitude would prove futile without a site survey. In this regards,the issue of cost in terms of monetary expenses and time willsuffice. On the other hand, Dutta et al (2015) assert thatinformation regarding case studies may appear complex or lacking asmost information on projects do not suffice in the public domain.Lack of important information regarding critical timelines and areasin Benghazi city will inhibit the success of the study.

The papertakes into consideration that project designers, locals, and ownersof buildings may be unwilling to offer forthright information aboutthe historical developments in the city as well as global influences.As such, the preparation of a full and critical case study aligned tothe research problem may appear too problematic than first thought. In effect, it will be problematic to obtain a case study conducted onBenghazi city, which may provide a point of reference. A peer reviewof conducted case studies may provide a comprehensive point ofallusion, but few case studies are submitted for publication inpeer-reviewed journals (Yang and Li, 2013 Mahdavinejadand Moradchelleh, 2011 Gao and Low, 2014), Meijering et al, 2015Silverman, 2013). In this regards, the research may lack anall-inclusive point of reference due to the absence of apeer-reviewed case study regarding the issue. However, thetheoretical framework supported by a critical body of literature willprovide support for the case study.


It is no doubt regional and global forces haveover time influenced architecture. The regional architecture isinfluenced by factors such as climate, religion and civilization. Onthe other hand, Dan (2013) asserts that global architecture is drivenby factors such as standardization, modernization and invention.Whereas local influences tend to uphold traditions and continuous ofpermanence, global influences introduce new flavors that tend to wipeout the aboriginal concepts and introducing new, modernized concepts.As such, there is a tension between globaland local architecture. In the process, there is loss of local orregional identity. For this reason, the opposing movements have overtime shaped the architectural history of many urban centers.

In Benghazi, pro historical designs have shownthe potential of taking away the city’s local identity. The cityhas been experienced occupations for a number of foreigners, mostnotably the Arabs, Ottoman and most recently the Italians. Over theseyears, the history of the city’s architecture has been shaped byprogressive combination of these regime’s designs, mixed with thelocal tastes. However, each regime made sure that its architecturalculture was imposed over the local and existing designs. This givesthe city of Benghazi a taste a number of notable designs over time.For instance, the Romans established their political andadministrative principles on the city by setting up Italian designs.Later, the Arabs used their architecture to impose their social andreligious ideologies. The Ottoman followed suit, and most recently,the Italians, whose Fascist social order made its presence felt faraway from home, by use of architecture. These are examples of howconflict can arise between local and foreign architecture in a givenurban place.

In modern city planning, rapid urbanization andglobal trends continue to set pace for the development of newarchitectural designs. Historical architecture was based on mainly ontraditions and local social order, however, modern architecture isinfluenced by technology and global trends. In Benghazi, the mixtureof local and urban architecture has influenced the city’s modernplanning. Despite the fact that every urban center strives tomaintain its indigenous taste, modern influences such as technologyand globalization continually affected the city’s urban planning.As the city growingly becomes modernized, there are a number ofcultures and values that mix up to make the city as metropolitan asit is. This influences the building and maintenance of socialbuildings such as churches, mosques, social halls, administrative andbusiness centers. This makes it impossible to include variousconcepts and themes in design and planning. For instance, there hasbeen established a number of places of worship for various religions,most notably Islam and Christianity. Additionally, the way publicspace is utilized is influenced by the most dominant design of theday, which is subject to the latest technology and trends. There isno doubt that this urbanization has robbed the city and itsindigenous people of certain cultural and local identity.

The literature review and subsequent researchshows that architectural heritage is a unique resource, which needsto be preserved diligently. Over time, structures and spaces acquirecharacter and special interest because of their designs.Additionally, major forces such as occupation by foreigners,modernization and global influence are threats to underminingarchitectural heritage. As such, there is need to set up limits forthe extent to which new designs can be implemented and how theexisting infrastructure can be preserved and maintained. This meansthat considerate maintenance and adaptation of preservation measuressuch as rehabilitation can be used to quell the tension betweenglobal and local architecture. Moreover, this would help to preventthe loss of local or regional identity through modern standardizedinternational trends.

In the 21st Century and aftermath of Arab springrevolution, architecture in many cities appear to be grappling withthe western ideals of architecture that epitomizes modernism,efficiency, affluence and retaining the traditional and historicvernacular architecture as symbols of pride, identity and heritage.Owing to the influence of globalization, social, and cultural forces,the tension between globalization and anti- globalization in theworld of architecture will continue for decades to come. As thestudy reveals, most architectural designs in Benghazi indicate ashift to western architectural designs, which have eroded localheritage. The Italian rule tried to incorporate local identities anddesigns in their architectural motifs and designs unlike Arabian andOman rules. In addition, the WW11 and the 2011 Revolution helpederode the local identities that most architectural structures andmotifs across Benghazi had incorporated. The study reveals thatduring the WW11 and the 2011 Revolution, the city lost many of thestructures or buildings that identified local identities, but newstructures that were erected later did not encompass such identities.In fact, both the war and the revolution left the city under ruins,but architectures failed to incorporate the defining designs that hadseen Benghazi pride herself in patrimonial structures thathighlighted her heritage.

Today, most of the structures along the Omer Mokhtar Street bear aresemblance to modern structures in other cities across the worldthat fail to incorporate local and regional heritage. From the Omanrule to the Italian rule and the WW11, Benghazi city has seen anincorporation of local identities and motifs in most structures, butthis phenomenon is changing fast. In this regards, the city has lostmost of her local identities as evidenced by new structures anddesigns. The history of Benghazi points to a rich culture of designsand motifs, but the ruins of old buildings means new structure.However, standardization, global influences, technology, inventionsin the architecture industry, and changing role of architecture hasseen Benghazi and other cities across the world lose their localidentities. In addition, most designs today embark on motifs thatwill represent the future instead of the past or local attachments,which has occurred within Benghazi. Conclusively, tensions betweenlocal and global influences or architectural designs and motifs haveseen the loss of regional and local identity as changes in BenghaziCity exemplify.


A’goston, G, and Masters, B.A. (2009) Encyclopedia of theOttoman Empire. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.

Adam, R. (2008) “Globalization and architecture:The challenges of globalization are relentlessly shapingarchitecture’s relationship with society and culture”, TheArchitectural Review 223(1332):74-77.

Alan,R. S. Toporkoff, S.and Levy. S. (2014) Smart Cities for aBright Sustainable Future – A Global Perspective’New York Kindle edition.

Bennett, P, and Barker, G. (2011) “Protecting Libya`sarchaeological heritage”, African Archaeological Review,&nbsp28(1),5-25.

Bernhard, P, (2012) “Behind the Battle Lines:Italian Atrocities and the Persecution of Arabs, Berbers, and Jews inNorth Africa during World War II”, Holocaustand Genocide Studies,&nbsp26(3),425-446.

Bettiza, G. (2013) “The social and material construction ofcivilizations in international relations: the`Muslim world”, InAmerican foreign policy after 9/11.

Bøås, M. (2012) “Autochthony and Citizenship:‘Civil Society’asVernacular Architecture?”,&nbspJournal of Intervention andStatebuilding,&nbsp6(1), 91-105.

Brophy, V, and Lewis, J. O. (2011)&nbspA green vitruvius:principles and practice of sustainable architectural design.Routledge.

Broughton, B. Finnegan, A. Jernigan, K. and Kleiss, J. (2013) UrbanPlanning: Theory and Practice in Portland.

Campbell, C. (2013)&nbspVitruvius Britannicus: The Classic ofEighteenth-Century British Architecture. Courier Corporation.

Caprese, V, (2012) “Italian ColonialArchitecture in Libya:“Libyan Nationalism Concept of“Mediterraneity”, 1926-19421.&nbspColonialArchitecture and Urbanism in Africa: Intertwined and ContestedHistories, 33.

Case, J. M, and Light, G. (2011) “Emerging research methodologiesin engineering education research”,&nbspJournal of EngineeringEducation,&nbsp100(1), 186-210.

Castillo, L. D. (2011) “Italian–Libyanrelations: Lorenzo Del Castillo outlines the background to thisrelationship and the implications for Libyan migrants”, CriminalJustice Matters,&nbsp85(1),4-5.

Cohen, J. P, (2014) “Oriental by Design: OttomanJews, Imperial Style, and the Performance of Heritage”,&nbspTheAmerican Historical Review,&nbsp119(2),364-398.

Cook, E, and Lara, J. J. (Eds.). (2013)&nbspRemaking metropolis:global challenges of the urban landscape. Routledge.

Dakhil, A. (2013)&nbspThe contribution of the constructionindustry to economic development in Libya&nbsp(Doctoraldissertation, Liverpool John Moores University).

Dan, M. B, (2013)&nbspInterwarArchitecture with Reinforced Concrete Structure Exposed toMultihazard in European Context: Intervention in the Romanian andItalian Context. LIT Verlag Münster.

Demissie, F. (2012) Colonial architecture and urbanism in Africa:Intertwined and contested histories. New York NY: AshgatePublishing.

Dixon, D. (2012) Analysis tool or research methodology? Is therean epistemology for patterns?.

Dutta, R, Li, C. Smith, D, Das, A, and Aryal, J. (2015) “Big DataArchitecture for Environmental Analytics”, In&nbspEnvironmentalSoftware Systems. Infrastructures, Services and Applications&nbsp(pp.578-588). Springer International Publishing.

Edward, B. (2006) Courtyard housing: Past, Present, and theFuture. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor &amp Francis Group.

Elkaseh, T. A, Rahman, I. A, and Memon, A. H. (2014) “Life CycleAssessment in Building Projects of Libya: Barriers toimplementation”,&nbspInternational Journal of Civil Engineeringand Built Environment,&nbsp1(1).

Elkaseh, T. A, Rahman, I. A, and Memon, A. H. (2014) “Implementationof LCA tools during Construction Phase in Context of Libyan BuildingProjects”, International Journal of Zero Waste Generation,&nbsp1(2),13-17.

Elkekli, F. T, (2014)&nbspTheidentity of the Medina, Tripoli, Libya: Conservation and urbanplanning from the nineteenth century to the present&nbsp(Doctoraldissertation, THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA).

Faulconbridge, J. R, (2009) “The regulation ofdesign in global architecture firms: embedding and emplacingbuildings”,&nbspUrbanStudies,&nbsp46(12),2537-2554.

Freely, J. (2011) A History of Ottoman Architecture. Southampton,UK: WIT Publishers.

Gao, S, and Low, S. P. (2014) “Research Methodology”, In&nbspLeanConstruction Management&nbsp(pp. 143-153). Springer Singapore.

Haider, A. (2013) “Research Methodology”, In&nbspInformationSystems for Engineering and Infrastructure Asset Management&nbsp(pp.129-150). Gabler Verlag.

Hayllar, B, Griffin, T, and Edwards, D. (Eds.). (2008)&nbspCityspaces-tourist places: urban tourism precincts. Routledge.

Hegemann, W, and Peets, E. (2014)&nbspThe American Vitruvius: AnArchitects` Handbook of Urban Design. Courier Corporation.

Herrle, P, and Schmitz, S. (2009) Constructing identity incontemporary architecture: Case studies from the south. Munich,Germany: LIT Vertlag Munster.

Hoag, J.D. (2012) Western Islamic Architecture: A ConciseIntroduction. New York, NY: Courier Corporation.

Hole, A, Grosberg, M, and Robinson, D. (2007) Tunisia. Oakland,CA: Lonely Planet Publishers.

Jones, M. W. (2015) “Ancient Architecture and Mathematics:Methodology and the Doric Temple”, In&nbspArchitecture andMathematics from Antiquity to the Future(pp. 271-295). SpringerInternational Publishing.

Kamat, S. (2014) “3 The New Development Architecture and ThePost-Political in the Global South”,&nbspThe Post-Political andIts Discontents: Spaces of Depoliticization, Spectres of RadicalPolitics, 67.

Kuban, D. (2010) Ottoman Architecture. London, UK: AntiqueCollectors Club.

Langton, M, and Longbottom, J. (Eds.). (2012)&nbspCommunityfutures, legal architecture: foundations for Indigenous peoples inthe global mining boom. Routledge.

Lloyd, J, and Kenrick, P. (2014) “Excavations at Sidi Khrebish,Benghazi, 1971–75: the small finds”,&nbspLibyan Studies,&nbsp45,97-150.

Mahdavinejad, M, and Moradchelleh, A. (2011) Problems and tendenciesof the development of the architectural sciences: Culture researchaspect. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 10(6), 677-682.

McLaren, B. (2006) Architecture and Tourism in Italian ColonialLibya: An Ambivalent Modernism. Washington, DC: University ofWashington Press.

McNabb, D, E. (2013) Researchmethods in public administration and nonprofit management:quantitative and qualitative approaches,Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Mecit, S. (2013) The Rum Seljuqs: Evolution of a Dynasty. NewYork, NY: Routledge.

Meijering, J. V, Tobi, H, van den Brink, A. Morris, F, and Bruns, D.(2015) “Exploring research priorities in landscape architecture: Aninternational Delphi study”,&nbspLandscape and UrbanPlanning,&nbsp137, 85-94.

Newman, W. E, and Vassigh, S. (2014, July) What would Vitruvius Do?Re-Thinking Architecture Education for the 21st Century University.In&nbspARCC Conference Repository.

Petersen, A. (2002) Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. NewYork, NY: Routledge.

Petty,N, J, Thomson, O, P, and Stew, G. (2012) “Ready for a paradigmshift? Part 2: Introducing qualitative research methodologies andmethods”, ManualTherapy-17(5),pp. 378-384.

Prudon,T. H, (2008)&nbspPreservationof modern architecture.Wiley

Rennie-Short,J. (2013)&nbspGlobalmetropolitan: Globalizing cities in a capitalist world.Routledge.

Richmond,O. P. (2012) “Beyond local ownership in the architecture ofinternational peace building”,&nbspEthnopolitics,&nbsp11(4),354-375.

Rossi,L. (2013)&nbspThepolitics of selective preservation: a study of causes andconsequences of cultural heritage destruction during peace: the casesof Afghanistan, Egypt and Libya&nbsp(Doctoraldissertation, Rutgers University-Graduate School-New Brunswick).

Rowland, I. D. (2014) Vitruvius and his Influence.&nbspACompanion to Roman Architecture, 412-425.

Silverman, D. (2013)&nbspDoing qualitative research: A practicalhandbook. SAGE Publications Limited.

Svarre, B. (2013) ‘How to Study Public Life’New York Kindle edition

Troll, C. W, and Hewer, C. T. R. (Eds.).(2012)&nbspChristian Lives Given to theStudy of Islam. Fordham Univ Press.

Vines, A. (2013) “A decade of African peace and securityarchitecture”, International Affairs,&nbsp89(1),89-109.

Watson, V. (2013) “African urban fantasies: dreams or nightmares?”,.Environment and Urbanization, 0956247813513705.

Wright, J. (2012) A history in Libya. New York, NY: HurstPublishers.

Yang, S. K. and Li, G. Q. (2013) “A Novel Qt-Based FMECA Platform:Methodology and Architecture”,&nbspAdvanced MaterialsResearch,&nbsp717, 732-735.

Yin, R, K. (2009) CaseStudy Research. Design and Methods,Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Related Posts

© All Right Reserved