Travel and Tourism Sector 5



Traveland Tourism Sector


Accordingto the World Tourism Organization (WTO) travel and tourism is definedas the activities taken by people travelling and staying inenvironments outside the usual daily routines, and this is done fornot more than one straight year for the purposes of relaxation orleisure, business or any other reason. As such, individualsconsidered tourists include those who take up residence away fromtheir homes and intend to go back after a year or so, the individualsparticipating in events that are generally considered leisureactivities. Also, people who are out on visits that are not permanentand only meant for short periods of time, short trips such asexcursions are also considered to be tourism activities, and finally,being away from once home and this is not necessary for holidaypurposes as an individual might have travelled for business.

Itis worth noting that travel and tourism, does not only implytravelling abroad, as majority of tourism transpire in the nativecountry whereby people will visit attraction sites, having citybreaks, attending business meeting in different destinations, goingto sports events and gigs, or simply friends and family visitations.There are three categories of tourism, the domestic tourist, theincoming, and the one travelling out referred to as the outboundtourist.

Keypre and post war developments supporting tourism in the UK from the19thcentury-2014


19th century developments

  • By 1815 tarmac roads had been developed in the UK increasing the movement of people and vehicles around the kingdom

  • The developed of railway services by 1825 allowed long distance travel for excursion activities

  • Development of steamships increased sea travel allowing ease of travel between England and France

  • People held strong desires to travel to escape living conditions that come with the industrial revolution of the 19th century


Ford motoring company introduced the motor car


The commencement of commercial airline services facilitating quick long distance travel


The very first holiday camp is opened


The paid holiday act was introduced


The Second World War


Organization of the first package tour cruising 32 passengers on a DC3 plane


First British jet powered passenger plane


Boeing passenger planes and jumbo jets with capacities of up to 500 passengers are developed


The tourism act is established in UK


Lifting of money exchange restrictions


Signing of the French-Anglo channel tunnel treaty


Allowance of development of low cost planes


Opening of Tunnel Chanel


Maiden non refuelled/ non-stop fright around the world


EU accession to 25 states


Introduction of the Airbus with a capacity of up to 800 passengers


Sporting events in the UK such as the Olympics, rugby events, and football events including European competitions.

Development of the Social Media Facebook, Twitter, Instagram among others allowing quick sharing of moments via the internet

Notethat after the 2ndworld war, the commercial aviation industry took off with the ex-warpilots being available to fly commercial planes, and technologicaldevelopments that transpired during the war were utilized in theafter war commercial developments. In additional, landmark eventssuch as the opening of the Channel Tunnel has had a great impact onthe development of tourism activities between the UK and Europe. Withthe passing of time seeing the development of technology that hasallowed ease communication and linkage of different cultures, manyyoung individuals have developed the desire to travel and witnessother cultures first-hand, while others seek warm climatic conditionsduring winters hence motivating travel (Boniface,Cooper, and Cooper, 2012).

Inaddition, change in consumer needs marked by quests for relaxation,whereby individuals are seeking to escape from boring jobs or theirhomes, an increased level of socialization with friend has been afactor behind domestic tourism with the youth having house partiesand stags, then there are those motivated by prestige all facilitatedby the readily available quick means of travel. Tourism has receivedamazing enhancements from technological impacts that have ensuredincreased marketing of destinations and ease in booking. In addition,such social-economic changes as an increased car ownership withmajority of households owning at least two cars. Considering thedifferent technological advancements in communication and transport,that is the car, airbus, speed trains, and cruise ships to mentionbut a few have impacted the tourism industry positively by making theworld more accessible to more people (Boniface,Cooper, and Cooper, 2012).


Section1- European Destination (United Kingdom-England)

    1. Presentation of the destination

Thehistory of England is not only long but also rich, it registerssettling of the prehistoric man, it was inhibited by the Celtictribes, it was conquered by the Romans, experienced invasions by theNormans, and the country thrived during the medieval and Victoriantimes hence establishing the rich extensive historical heritage it isenjoying in the 21stcentury. The country has remains from early civilization areeverywhere from the Hadrian Wall put up by the Romans to theprehistoric Stonehenge. England as a destination boosts of gratearchitectural structures as the great cathedral of York and manysmall village churches across the country representing a heritage ofChristianity. The country has castles marking traditional militarysites that also serve as indicators of wealth and prosperity of pasttimes, and villages still bring out their humble village origin andarchitectures of ancient England. Elsewhere, the country side gardenshave been brought to full flower representing perfect views androyalty (Boniface,Cooper, and Cooper, 2012).

    1. Mind-map of the Travel and Tourism structure

TheUK and especially England has no shortage of destinations consideringvarious available features from Decker buses, cottages and countryhouses, and pubs, nevertheless, tourist destinations in the countryare packed in small areas marked with rich history. Major attractionsinclude the Hadrian’s Wall, an ancient wall from 122AD stretchingfor about 73 miles across the northern England, put up by the Romansseeking to protect Britannia from tribes in the neighbouringScotland. The Warwick Castle is another destination, which isoriginally a wooden structure dating way back to 1068, and rebuild instone in the 12thcentury. During the Hundred Years War, the concealment opposite thetown was refortified setting a highly reorganized 14thcentury military architecture.

TheTower of London, which is the modern day home to the British CrownJewels has a rich history serving as prison from 1100 to the mid ofthe twentieth century, the castle dates back to the winter of 1066serving as a royal resident and later as a prison. In addition, thetower has been said to be the most ghost haunted building in England.The Durham Cathedral is another destination in the UK, it is situatedin the city of Durham northeast England, and it is the greatestNorman building across Europe. The structure was put up in 1093 andmost of it remains in the original design, additionally, thestructure has been voted as England’s best loved building. Anotherdestination is the York Minister, which stands among the largestGothic cathedral in northern Europe, the structures integrates allthe major gothic architecture developed in England with thestructure’s construction stretching from 1230 to 1472 and it bearsthe largest stretch of a medieval stained glass in the world(Novelli,Schmitz, and Spencer).

TheWindsor Castle is another destination, being the largest and oldestoccupied castle in the world. It is also among the officialresidences of the Queen, a she spends the majority of her weekends atthe castle. The oldest surviving building at the castle dates back tothe reign of King Henry II at about 1154. The Big Ben Clock Towerstands as one of London’s top attractions dating over 150 yearsback the clock tower is the 3rdlargest free standing tower in the world. Finally, but not least, theStonehenge is a top destination for tourists in the UK as it is amongthe most important prehistoric sites in the world, with majority ofthe aspects about the Stonehenge remaining unanswered. Historicalevidence suggest the stones might have been erected around 2500 BCalthough it has never been established why they were put up, thoughspeculations suggest it might have been used as a ceremonial orreligious centre (Novelli,Schmitz, and Spencer, 2006).

Touroperators and travel

Touroperators play a key role in promoting destinations across the UK asthey put together the different destinations sites and componentsmaking a holiday and they market them out as packages to thepotential tourist both domestic and international. The tour operatorsplay the vital role of initiating contacts with the differentairlines, hoteliers, and related transport companies putting up anall expense calculated package to the customer tourist. Usually, theywill incorporate all the destinations in a brochure and distributedto customers or travel agents. Examples of tour operators in Englandinclude My Travel operators, TUI tour operators, First Choice UK, andThomas Cook. TUI UK is the largest travel operator in the world, andthey cater air travel, holidays, and related leisure related travelservices. Domestic operators include coach companies who offer beach,city tours, and holiday packages to UK residents (Dwyer,Forsyth, and Rao, 2000).

    1. Government Implications at the Local and National Level

TheUK has established four tourist boards, which are VisitBritain,Scotland’s VisitScotland, the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, andthe Wales Tourist Board. The roles of the this tourist boards are tomarket the UK destinations to the rest of the world, in addition theyare to build the value of tourism via a creation of a world-classdestination brands and be involved in marketing campaigns both at alocal and national level. These boards initiated b the governmentalso aim at creating partnerships with other organizations interestedin the UK tourism such as the UK immigration services. The boardsalso acts as advisers to the national government on issues that mightaffect the tourism in the UK and recommend different actions that canbe undertaken to meet the needs of the tourism industry. Thesegovernment bodies are also mandated with the duty of persuading highspending tourists to have UK as their preferred destination boostingthe economy in the process (Middletonand Clarke, 2012).

Thelocal departments set up by the government have the responsibilitiesof supporting the tourism industry since it is acts as a majorcontributor towards economic growth. As such majority of the townsacross the UK have a tourist information centre funded by the localcouncils. This information centres aid in promotion of local touristespecially the residence and offer information to visitors informingthem of local attractions and available accommodation and more thanoften taking the initiative of making reservation for the tourists,thus, it also plays a vital role in the generation of funds.

    1. The influence of International agencies and the European Union

Theinternational agencies such as the EU have had positive influences onthe tourisms sector not just in the UK but also across. For instance,the deregulation of the EU worked well for the air travel industryallowing airlines to establish them in any member country and beissued with an operational licence without hindrances, in addition,all travel airline routes have been open to European Union carrierwhich has had a major impact in the rise of tourism. Also, theseinternational agencies have facilitated the opening of the ChannelTunnel which has had a major impact on the travel of tourists betweenthe UK and Europe (Middletonand Clarke, 2012).


2.1.Implications on the Travel and Tourism in Ukraine

Ukrainehas of late undergone major political changes opening the country toa higher influx of tourism than was it previous regimes (Travel andImpact, 2012). As such travel and tourism has had many differentimpacts on the social and cultural aspects of life to the people ofUkraine, this mainly because the interactions between tourists andthe host community place as a factor affecting the local customs andtraditional standards. Some of the positive influences tourism hashad on Ukraine include, local communities have had the opportunitiesto interact with individuals from diverse background cultures andsocial setting in the process influencing an improvement theirlifestyles and they have started practicing from example set by thetourists.

Traveland tourism in the Ukraine has seen an improvement or realization ofbetter local life, as the government has improved local facilities ina bid to promote tourism in the country. As such, Ukrainians can nowenjoy better infrastructure including improved roads, better healthcare, and economical side of it where employment opportunities havearisen from the travel and tourism industry in hotels and transport.Since the political transition, Ukraine through travel and tourismcan now enjoy more cultural and social events, which are available toits inhabitants. In addition, the country has seen an improvement inits sports and leisure activities for the tourists and in the processthe local masses are also benefiting from these improvements (Traveland Impact, 2012).

TheUkrainian government has since taken up initiatives to preserve thelocal and cultural heritage ensuring traditional crafts andarchitecture are preserved. The Ukrainian urban areas which wereprevious on a decline have now been revived in the movement of peoplefrom rural areas to urban for employment in the travel and tourismsector. In addition travel and tourism has led to the establishmentof youth exchange programmes thus, promoting village tourism and homeswap programmes and voluntary works in the exchange programs.Checking the financial investment by both the private and governmentsectors in the travel and tourism industry there has been animprovement in infrastructure and the hospitable culture of theUkrainian people leading to the acceptance of different lifestylesimplying that tourist are welcomed but not threatening the alreadyexisting ways of life in Ukraine (Traveland Impact, 2012).

2.2.Effectsof supply and demand on the travel and tourism industry in the UKsince the 2012 Olympic Games

Themajor benefits of tourism for the UK since the 2012 Olympics havebeen a positive economical impact. The tourism sector has exposed theUK to the world in the process providing opportunities for jobs andrevenue generation at all levels. The UK has had money coming intoboth the urban and rural areas, which has played a part in promotingbusiness in these areas and promoting positive images of the UK. Thetravel and tourism sector accounts for 5% of the UK’s GDP and itemploys way over 2 million people. The UK government has thus been anactive promoter of travel and tourism in the UK as it brings foreigncurrency into the country in the process generating more wealth forthe country. The generated income has played a vital role in helpingthe national balance of payment, with the government earning revenuefrom direct taxation of tourist and travel activities, and earningindirectly via good and services sold to the tourists.

Inconclusion, the development of the UK as a tourist destinationbenefited the local economies via the formation of new employment andthe influx of visitors has brought more business to the local shopsand restaurants. Generated income has been vital in improving localservices and bettering infrastructure and improvement of facilitiesbenefiting both visitors and the local people.


Boniface,B., Cooper, C., and Cooper, R. 2012. Worldwidedestinations: the geography of travel and tourism.London, Routledge.

Dwyer,L., Forsyth, P., and Rao, P. 2000. The price competitiveness oftravel and tourism: a comparison of 19 destinations. TourismManagement,21(1),9-22.

Middleton,V. T., and Clarke, J. R. 2012. Marketingin travel and tourism.London, Routledge.

Novelli,M., Schmitz, B., and Spencer, T. 2006. Networks, clusters andinnovation in tourism: A UK experience. Tourismmanagement,27(6),1141-1152.

Travel,W. T. T. C., and Impact, T. E. 2012. Ukraine.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

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