Limitationin physical wellbeing and health related impairment requirescontinuousmedical attention, they also require general educationenvironment that can accommodate them. There are two majorclassifications of physical disabilities neuromotor impairment, itis the damage of the central nervous system which consists of thebrain and the spinal cord. This causes limitation in muscular controland movement. Children with this condition require special devices todo tasks such as eating, writing or walking. Most of these childrenhave difficulties in social skill which are easily overlooked (Martha& Fredda 2011).
315000students between the ages of six to fourteen have epilepsy. Thiscauses them to have other disabilities or conditions such as cerebralpalsy or mental retardation. Epilepsy also referred to as seizuredisorder or convulsive disorder is a condition which someone hasrecurrent seizures as a result of excessive, sudden, spontaneous andabnormal discharge of neurons inside the brain. Seizure can cause thechange of the individualsmotor or functions of the sensesresulting to unconsciousness(Martha & Fredda 2011).70 % of thoseaffected with seizure are treated, those with other coexistingconditions as cerebral palsy or mental retardation successfultreatment is lower.
Cerebralpalsy is another neuromotor impairment encountered in school. It is anon-infectious and non-progressive condition that affects musclesconditions and body movement.it is as a result of insufficient oxygenin the brain occurs during birth process or way before, it isreferred to as congenital cerebral palsy and result to 70% of all thecases (united cerebral palsy association, 2013). Acquired cerebralpalsy happens after birth but in early childhood. It is brain damagecaused either by brain infection, accident or child abuse. Oncecerebral palsy is acquired is not curable.
Muscularor skeletal condition is also found in children mostly limbdeficiencies. Limb deficiency is caused by non- functioning ormissing legs or arms, it can either be continental or acquired.Despite the fact that the disability isphysical, many children withlimb deficiency have a hard time adjusting to situations (Martha &Fredda 2011). The attitude of parents, classmates and of courseteachers is a major contributor of their psychological health.
Theretwo types health impairment chronic illness and infectious diseases.All children experience short-term illness during illness but thereare those who have chronic illnesses either for years or lifetime.These affects the students school attendance and may not consistentlyfocus on the school work.
Infectiousdiseases that student may infect are human immunodeficiency virus(HIV), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). There are variouseffects on the children who have HIV/AIDS which include damage ofthe central nervous system, motor problems, psychological stress,developmental delay and death (Martha& Fredda 2011).
Positivebehavior support is the applying of positive behavioral systems andintervention to come up with a socially acceptable behavior change.It is applying behaviorally based system to improve capacity of thefamily, school and the entire community to create an environment thatthat enhance the link between the teaching-learning environment andthe research-validated practices(Beech, 2010).
Researchshows that the positive behavior support approach can give rapidchanges in student behavior when it is implemented consistently. These approach teaches a child new skills, prevents occurrence ofchallenging behavior an also makes sure those behavior are no longereffective for the children(Beech, 2010). For example a child whothrows tantrum, positive support approach is used to show the childthe appropriate way to request for a break.
Toaddress the individual, classroom and school wide problem inbehavior, research validated practices can be identified, adopted andsustained. All students should receive appropriate public educationin an environment that is less restrictive they should acquireacademic, social skills and vocations. Both the students with andwithout disabilities should live, learn, work and have social networkas peers(Beech, 2010).Families with children who have special needsshould participate in the early intervention and other programs fortheir children, taking advantage of those services to acquire skillsto respond to the special needs of their children.
Thedisabled student should not be excluded from school but insteadintervention techniques should be put to support inclusion of allstudents. The environment should not be restrictive it shouldencourage segregation of physically disabled students and those withhealth impairment. Students’ educators and parents should engage incollaboration in designing and implementation of provision of freeeducation which is appropriate and make sure the environment isfavorable for everyone (Beech, 2010).
Thestate and education agencies are responsible in ensuring the schoolshave all the necessary facilities to accommodate the needs of allstudents. Unfortunately far too many states have classified andseparated students among others according to their learningdisabilities, physical disabilities, severe emotional breakdown,mental retardation, and autism, visual and hearing disabilities.
Commonand core state standards ensures that all students from high schoolare ready for college and life after college.it has a number ofdepartments which includes literacy, standards of teachingmathematics, social studies, sciences and technical subjects. Inmost states they have authority to create instructional andcurricular resources that give guidance in day to dayinstruction(Loesl, 2012). All students despite their disability haveequal rights to educational standards and goals. Federal laws statesthat disabled students are include in general public educationcurriculum in all aspects. Individuals with disabilities act in 2004states that students with special needs must access and make progressin general curriculum.
Studentswith certain learning disabilities have average intelligence theyhave disorder in psychological processes in use of spoken and writtenlanguage. Each student has a specific learning disability which ismanifested uniquely and hence the education standards and supportshould understand the student’s needs(Loesl, 2012). The knowledgeof the difference and uniqueness of the students’ disability andimpairment is important for successful inclusion in the curriculum ofgeneral education.
Todeliver meaningful and appropriate instruction in the educationstandards framework, various factors should be put to considerationpossession of knowledge of range of physical disabilities and healthimpairments and their requirement to provide appropriate inclusion. Seek and utilize the information that the individual educationprogram (IEP) have, this include the learning needs and strength,accommodation required for every student with disabilities (Thurlow,2011). When all students have full access to education rights andhave similar standards despite disabilities, it is a design to helpthe students achieve high as expected from any other student.
Communicationis foundation to all education activities. Everyone should be able toexpress their questions, comments and desire and also get informationfrom others. Assume a continuum of difference in learning thestudents will learn at different levels but each student has theirstrength and weakness (Thurlow, 2011). General education curriculumshouldbe flexible and should be able to engage and challengestudents.
MarthaE. Fredda. B (2011).Studentswith Severe Disabilities,Seventh Edition, Pearson Education.
BeechM. (2010).Accommodations:Assisting students with disabilities,NewYork: Oxford University Press.
Loesl,S. D. (2012). Theadaptive art specialist: An integral part of a student’s access toart, New York: Oxford University Press.
Thurlow,M. L. (2011). Commoncore stateArts,NewYork: Oxford University Press